NTD309 exam 1 (part 2)
Card Set Information
NTD309 exam 1 (part 2)
ntd 309 pregnancy nutrition fall 2014
Physiology and nutrition during pregnancy fall 2014
illness, severe case
status of pregnancy outcomes?
death from birth to age 1
aka less than 5.5 lbs
births <37 weeks gestation?
percentage of preterm delivery?
how to reduce infant mortality and morbidity?
improve birth weight of newborns
its important for the baby to be?
full term and at a healthy weight
health people 2020 pregnant women/newborns objectives?
reduce the number of LBW babies, preterm delivery and infant mortality
the baby grows the most during what trimester?
1st trimester is characterized by?
2nd trimester is characterized by?
mom making sure she is eating enough to put on baby fat
assessed from date of conception
aka due date
assessed from onset of last menstrual period
the menstrual age is different from the gestational age by?
number of weeks in gestational age? menstrual age?
2-8 weeks baby is called?
8- delivery baby is known as?
26 weeks - term
kidney function during pregnancy?
blood flow rate through kidney increase
blood volume and composition in pregnancy?
plasma volume increases + 50%
more fluid so everything (iron) becomes diluted
circulatory system during pregnancy?
increased cardiac output
vasodialation decreases arterial BP thru week 20 (blood vessels relax)
heart becomes more ___ during pregnancy?
respiration during pregnancy?
increase metabolic rate, increase oxygen needs
respiration rate goes up
gastrointestinal function during pregnancy?
sense of taste altered
increased intestinal tract time
increased intestinal transit time?
everything slows down, absorption increases
hormones during pregnancy?
30 different hormones involved
progesterone and estrogen
hormones during pregnancy cause?
an organ that weighs 1.5 lbs
produces major pregnancy hormones
role of placenta?
facilitates the exchange of nutrients, oxygen and waste products of mother and fetus
nutrient transfer in the placenta occurs through?
simple, facilitated diffusion, active transport and pinocytosis
roles of placenta
hormones decrease maternal immune response against fetus
more receptors in the GI tract are? so that?
turned on during pregnancy so more nutrients are absorbed
what is the baby called from 0-2 weeks?
where is zygote located?
still in fallopian tubes, then works its way down to attach to uterine wall
how are the zygotes nutritional needs met?
by uterine milk
cells differentiate into layers
period of most rapid growth
placenta forms during which stage?
1 new cell is formed, embryonic period
1 cell size, fetal growth period
by week 8, what is developed?
major organ systems and placental exchange provides most nutritional needs
during the fetal growth period?
nutrient needs are high
during embryonic development, the fetus is most susceptible towards?
major structural abnormalities
weight gain during pregnancy is related to?
the weight and health status of the newborn infant
the longer the gestation, the less the?
most women will lose how many lbs after delivery?
weight lost is often difficult in women who gained?
more than 45 pounds or with low activity levels
energy requirements in women?
+340 calories second trimester
+452 calories third trimester
metabolic effects of fasting after 12+ hours?
maternal metabolism is converted to glucogenic amino acid utilization
production of ketones
long term fasting during pregnancy may?
stunt growth and impair brain development
caused from poorly controlled gestational diabetes
during the 1st half of pregnancy with carb metabolism ?
hormones increase insulin levels and storage of glucose as glycogen increases
2nd half of pregnancy with carb metabolism ?
there is increased insulin resistance, meaning there is high levels of glucose in blood which helps the fetus grow
maternal reliance on ___ __ for energy increases during pregnancy
what increases during pregnancy?
blood levels of lipids increase by 3x
calcium and sodium needs
RDA for protein is?
carries oxygen to tissues
iron deficiency anemia?
increase risk for preterm delivery
iron needs for pregnancy go to?
fetus and placenta
lost at delivery
increased red blood cells
how many mg total are needed of iron during pregnancy?
how much extra calcium is needed during the 3rd trimester?
poor calcium intake may?
increase release of lead into blood from bone tissues
how much calcium is recommended per day?
what increases during pregnancy?
absorption and excretion
toxic levels of what vitamin are very bad for pregnancy?
problem with vitamin A?
acutane and retin-A for acne can cause severe birth defects
new cells are being developed and you want them to turn on to do work
what vitamin is important for calcium absorption?
small amts of vitamin D results in?
poor fetal bone formation
small, poorly formed bones, abnormal enamel and low blood levels of calcium after birth
pregnant woman at risk for vitamin D deficiency?
consume raw milk
low exposure to sun
folate is digested into
diff between folate and folic acid?
occurs naturally in foods
supplements and fortified food
functions of folate?
synthesis of DNA
fetal and maternal growth
increase red blood cell formation
low folate can cause what deficiency?
neural tube defects
neural tube defects?
fusion of neural tube occurs?
on day 28
recommended intake of folate for non pregnant? pregnant?
600 mcg for pregnant
on day 28, what fuses?
the spinal column and neural tube
caused by the neural tube not fusing together
eating disorder characterized by the compulsion to eat substances that are not food
pica is common with?
pregnant women, it goes away when they deliver
risks with pica?
infections from parasites