NTD309 exam 1 (part 2)

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melissag94
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283642
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NTD309 exam 1 (part 2)
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2014-09-20 23:02:12
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ntd 309 pregnancy nutrition fall 2014
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Physiology and nutrition during pregnancy fall 2014
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  1. illness, severe case
    morbidity
  2. status of pregnancy outcomes?
    • infant mortality
    • low birthweight
    • preterm delivery
  3. death from birth to age 1
    infant mortality
  4. LBW?
    • <2500 g
    • aka less than 5.5 lbs
  5. births <37 weeks gestation?
    preterm delivery
  6. percentage of preterm delivery?
    12.7%
  7. how to reduce infant mortality and morbidity?
    improve birth weight of newborns
  8. its important for the baby to be?
    full term and at a healthy weight
  9. health people 2020 pregnant women/newborns objectives?
    reduce the number of LBW babies, preterm delivery and infant mortality
  10. the baby grows the most during what trimester?
    the third
  11. 1st trimester is characterized by?
    hormonal changes
  12. 2nd trimester is characterized by?
    mom making sure she is eating enough to put on baby fat
  13. assessed from date of conception
    • gestational age
    • aka due date
  14. assessed from onset of last menstrual period
    menstrual age
  15. the menstrual age is different from the gestational age by?
    2 weeks
  16. number of weeks in gestational age? menstrual age?
    • 38 weeks
    • 40 weeks
  17. 2-8 weeks baby is called?
    embryo
  18. 8- delivery baby is known as?
    fetus
  19. 0-13 weeks
    1st trimester
  20. 13-26 weeks
    2nd trimester
  21. 26 weeks - term
    3rd trimester
  22. kidney function during pregnancy?
    blood flow rate through kidney increase
  23. blood volume and composition in pregnancy?
    • plasma volume increases + 50%
    • hemodilution
  24. hemodilution?
    more fluid so everything (iron) becomes diluted
  25. circulatory system during pregnancy?
    • increased cardiac output
    • vasodialation decreases arterial BP thru week 20 (blood vessels relax)
  26. heart becomes more ___ during pregnancy?
    fit
  27. respiration during pregnancy?
    • increase metabolic rate, increase oxygen needs
    • respiration rate goes up
  28. gastrointestinal function during pregnancy?
    • appetite increases
    • sense of taste altered
    • increased intestinal tract time
  29. increased intestinal transit time?
    everything slows down, absorption increases
  30. hormones during pregnancy?
    • 30 different hormones involved
    • progesterone and estrogen
    • placenta
  31. hormones during pregnancy cause?
    morning sickness
  32. an organ that weighs 1.5 lbs
    placenta
  33. produces major pregnancy hormones
    placenta
  34. role of placenta?
    facilitates the exchange of nutrients, oxygen and waste products of mother and fetus
  35. nutrient transfer in the placenta occurs through?
    simple, facilitated diffusion, active transport and pinocytosis
  36. roles of placenta
    • immunological protection
    • nutrient transfer
  37. hormones decrease maternal immune response against fetus
    immunological protection
  38. more receptors in the GI tract are? so that?
    turned on during pregnancy so more nutrients are absorbed
  39. what is the baby called from 0-2 weeks?
    zygote
  40. where is zygote located?
    still in fallopian tubes, then works its way down to attach to uterine wall
  41. how are the zygotes nutritional needs met?
    • by uterine milk
    • endometrium
  42. embryonic stage?
    • 2-8 weeks
    • critical period
    • cells differentiate into layers
  43. fetal stage?
    • 8-40 weeks
    • period of most rapid growth
    • weight increase
  44. placenta forms during which stage?
    zygote
  45. 1 new cell is formed, embryonic period
    hyperplasia
  46. 1 cell size, fetal growth period
    hypertrophy
  47. by week 8, what is developed?
    major organ systems and placental exchange provides most nutritional needs
  48. during the fetal growth period?
    nutrient needs are high
  49. during embryonic development, the fetus is most susceptible towards?
    major structural abnormalities
  50. weight gain during pregnancy is related to?
    the weight and health status of the newborn infant
  51. the longer the gestation, the less the?
    health risk
  52. most women will lose how many lbs after delivery?
    15 lbs
  53. weight lost is often difficult in women who gained?
    more than 45 pounds or with low activity levels
  54. energy requirements in women?
    • +340 calories second trimester
    • +452 calories third trimester
  55. metabolic effects of fasting after 12+ hours?
    • maternal metabolism is converted to glucogenic amino acid utilization
    • production of ketones
  56. long term fasting during pregnancy may?
    stunt growth and impair brain development
  57. caused from poorly controlled gestational diabetes
    macrosomic baby
  58. during the 1st half of pregnancy with carb metabolism ?
    hormones increase insulin levels and storage of glucose as glycogen increases
  59. 2nd half of pregnancy with carb metabolism ?
    there is increased insulin resistance, meaning there is high levels of glucose in blood which helps the fetus grow
  60. maternal reliance on ___ __ for energy increases during pregnancy
    fat stores
  61. what increases during pregnancy?
    • blood levels of lipids increase by 3x
    • calcium and sodium needs
  62. RDA for protein is?
    25 grams/day
  63. carries oxygen to tissues
    iron
  64. RDA iron?
    27 mg/day
  65. iron deficiency anemia?
    • increase risk for preterm delivery
    • LBW babies
  66. iron needs for pregnancy go to?
    • fetus and placenta
    • lost at delivery
    • increased red blood cells
  67. how many mg total are needed of iron during pregnancy?
    1000mg
  68. how much extra calcium is needed during the 3rd trimester?
    300mg
  69. poor calcium intake may?
    increase release of lead into blood from bone tissues
  70. how much calcium is recommended per day?
    1000mg
  71. what increases during pregnancy?
    absorption and excretion
  72. toxic levels of what vitamin are very bad for pregnancy?
    vitamin A
  73. problem with vitamin A?
    acutane and retin-A for acne can cause severe birth defects
  74. new cells are being developed and you want them to turn on to do work
    cell differentiation
  75. what vitamin is important for calcium absorption?
    vitamin D
  76. small amts of vitamin D results in?
    • poor fetal bone formation
    • small, poorly formed bones, abnormal enamel and low blood levels of calcium after birth
  77. pregnant woman at risk for vitamin D deficiency?
    • consume raw milk
    • low exposure to sun
    • vegans
  78. folate is digested into
    folic acid
  79. diff between folate and folic acid?
    • occurs naturally in foods
    • supplements and fortified food
  80. functions of folate?
    • synthesis of DNA
    • fetal and maternal growth
    • increase red blood cell formation
  81. low folate can cause what deficiency?
    neural tube defects
  82. neural tube defects?
    • spina bifida
    • anencephaly
  83. fusion of neural tube occurs?
    on day 28
  84. recommended intake of folate for non pregnant? pregnant?
    • 400mcg
    • 600 mcg for pregnant
  85. on day 28, what fuses?
    the spinal column and neural tube
  86. caused by the neural tube not fusing together
    spina bifida
  87. eating disorder characterized by the compulsion to eat substances that are not food
    pica
  88. pica is common with?
    pregnant women, it goes away when they deliver
  89. risks with pica?
    • infections from parasites
    • bowel obstruction
    • mineral deficiencies

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