NTD309 exam 1 (part 3)

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  1. the 2nd leading complication in pregnancy
  2. results from destruction of insulin-producing cells of pancreas
    type 1 diabetes
  3. due to body's inability to use insulin normally or produce enough insulin
    type 2 diabetes
  4. CHO intolerance with 1st onset during pregnancy (24-28th weeks)
    gestational diabetes
  5. condition in which the glucose level is elevated during pregnancy
    gestational diabetes
  6. not caused by a lack of insulin, but by blocking effects of placental hormones on insulin, resulting in an insulin resistance
    gestational diabetes
  7. women who develop gestational diabetes appear to be?
    predisposed to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes
  8. gestational diabetes is associated with?
    increased levels of blood glucose, triglycerides, fatty acids and blood pressure
  9. consequences of GD?
    elevated glucose from mom reaches fetus resulting in increased insulin production
  10. what does increased insulin lead to?
    increased glucose uptake and triglyceride formation in fetus
  11. fetal changes may increase likelihood of complications later in life such as?
    • insulin resistance
    • type 2 diabetes
    • high blood pressure
  12. GD has lifelong effects on?
    mother and baby
  13. results of glucose screening?
    if any of the numbers are elevated, then you have gestational diabetes
  14. treatment for GD?
    • normalize blood glucose
    • insulin injections if blood glucose cant be normalized
    • medical nutrition therapy
  15. glucose comes from?
    carbs you eat and muscles (glycogen) and glycogen from liver
  16. what breaks down glycogen at night?
  17. what most women with GD test every day?
    • test blood glucose four times per day
    • *may have to test at bed time or in the middle of the night
  18. target blood glucose levels before breakfast? 1 hour after starting a meal?
    • 60-95m mg/dL
    • less than 130
  19. amount of ketones during pregnancy?
    want ZERO ketone production during pregnancy
  20. acids made from breaking down fat that can cross the placenta
  21. ketones are produced during pregnancy due to ?
    • not enough calories
    • too long between meals
    • not enough insulin
  22. food, activity and stress as well as diabetes medications affect?
    blood glucose levels
  23. what raises blood glucose?
    carbs, psychological stress, physical stress, illness
  24. what lowers blood glucose?
    physical activity, insulin, diabetes pills
  25. increases insulin production and makes cells more responsive to insulin
  26. diet plan for GD?
    • no simple sugars, candy or soda
    • can only have whole fruits
  27. for a person with GD, their morning carbs can be no more than?
  28. meals/snack a day for a person with diabetes?
    three regular meals, 2-4 snacks
  29. prevention of GD?
    • reduce excessive weight
    • increase physical activity
    • decrease insulin resistance prior to pregnancy
Card Set
NTD309 exam 1 (part 3)
nutrition during pregnancy fall 2014
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