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The biological clock; regular body rhythms that occur on a 24-hour cycle
Rapid eye movement sleep; a recurring sleep stage that during which vivid dreams commonly occur
Who found out about REM Sleep?
Eugene on his 8 year old son Armond Aserinsky with an EEG.
What else is REM sleep known as and why?
Paradoxical Sleep because the muscles are relaxed (except for minor twitches) but other body systems are active.
Relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state.
Periodic, natural loss of consciousness
Describe William Dement's experiment
- Dement made a sleep deprived young man lie down with his eyelids taped back.
- He told him to press a button everytime a strobe light flashed in his eyes.
- After a few minutes the man missed one and said it was because there was no flash.
- There was a flash, he had just missed it because he fell asleep for 2 seconds.
- False sensory experiences
- Such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus
Large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep
- Non-rapid eye movement sleep
- Encompasses all sleep stages except for REM sleep
- Suprachiasmatic Nucelus
- Pair of cell clusters in the hypothalamus that controls circadian rhythm
- Light intensity causes the SCN to cause the pineal gland to adjust melatonin production, thus modifying our feelings of sleepiness
In what stage of sleep are likely to experience hypnagogic sensations of falling?
- Persistent problems in falling or stay asleep
- Is not a disorder, it is a symptom for a deeper underlying disorder
- Sleep disorder with uncontrollable sleep attacks
- The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep
Sleep disorder with unaware temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings
- Sleep disorder with high arousal and an appearance of being terrified
- They are seldom remembered
- Targets mostly children
How are Night Terrors different from Nightmares?
They occur during NREM-3 sleep, within two or 3 hours of falling asleep and are seldom remembered
Sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person's mind
Why do we dream?
- To satisfy our own wishes
- To file away memories
- To develop and preserve neural pathways
- To make sense of neural static
- To reflect cognitive development
Why do we need sleep and what kind of psychologist would say this?
- To protect us-Evolutionist
- To help us recuperate-Biological
- To help us restore and rebuild our fading memories of the day's experiences-Cognitive
- To feed our creative thinking-Cognitive
- To support our growth-Biological
Remembered storyline of our dreams according to Freud
The underlying meaning of a dream according to Freud
The tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation
Awareness we have about ourselves and within our enviroment
Being able to process only one conscious thought at a time
Why is daydreaming good?
- It is healthy and necessary
- We are filing away new memories
Most vital portion of sleep
When light activates the Penial gland after you just woke up from dreaming what happens?
You won't remember your dream
The 5 Stages of sleep is also known as...
The 90 minute cycle
Seasonal Affective Disorder
What is the treatment for Seasonal Affective Disorder?
Phototherapy or light therapy
What does the 25th hour have to do with?
What makes us finally sleep?
- Light Intensity
- Pineal Gland
How does Light Intensity affect us?
- Light intensity causes us to either increase or decrease melatonin production.
- If it's dark outside melatonin is increased.
- If it's bright outside melatonin is decreased.
Why do we fall asleep gradually?
Because Melatonin passes through the bloodstream
- Alpha Waves
- Slowing of breathing
- Increased brain activity
- Lasts about 10 minutes
- Very relaxed state
- Minor Hallucinations
- Beta Waves
- Sleep Spindles-twitches
- Last about 10-15 minutes
- Some say it does not exist because it's so short
- Less than 5 minutes
- Delta Waves
- Deep sleep
- Can occur with eyes open
- Longest stage (lasts about 30-35 minutes)
What type of things can happen during Stage 4?
- Night Terrors
Adult Bed Wetting
Wants to sleep a lot
How to cure Insomnia
- Eat healthy
- Try to go to bed on the same schedule regularly
Theory of Narcolepsy?
It is linked to the lack of the neurotransmitter called Hypocretin.
Sleep Apnea treatments?
- Oxygen Mask
- Removal of Tonsils and Uvula
- Weight loss
Night Terror treatments?
None, the child will grow out of it
What is the problem with Freudian Dream Theory?
- He interpreted everyone's dreams differently
- Very unscientific/too vague
- Too much introspection
Dreams provide a psychic safety valve to discharge unacceptable feelings
Dreams help us sort out the day's events and consolidate our memories
Regular brain stimulation from REM sleep may help develop and preserve neural pathways
REM sleep triggers neural activity that evokes random visual memories which our sleeping brain weaves into stories
Dream content reflects dreamers' cognitive development - their knowledge and understanding