Research Process

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Author:
chanchan27104
ID:
283743
Filename:
Research Process
Updated:
2014-09-21 21:07:12
Tags:
psych
Folders:
PSY 230
Description:
Let's do science
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  1. How do we acquire knowledge?
    • Tradition/Tenacity
    • Intuition
    • Authority
    • Personal Experience
    • Reasoning
    • Empiricism
  2. Main Goals of Psychology
    • Describe
    • Explain
    • Predict
    • Control/influence
  3. Why do we do Research
    • To evaluate a theory
    • To satisfy curiosity
    • To demonstrate a new technique
    • To demonstrate a behavioral phenomenon
    • To investigate conditions influencing behavioral phenomena
  4. Tenets of Science
    • Determinism
    • Empiricism
    • Replicability
    • Falsifiability
    • Parsimony
  5. Determinism
    Belief that events have natural causes
  6. Empiricism
    Reliance on real evidence to confirm or refute claims
  7. Replicability
    Findings must be repeatedly discovered
  8. Falsifiability
    Hypotheses and theories must be refutable through empirical research
  9. Parsimony
    Simplest explanation for a phenomena
  10. What makes a good theory?
    • Terms are precise
    • Conclusions are logically consistent
    • Statements are in accordance with reality
    • High information content
    • Simplicity (parsimony
    • It is falsifiable!
  11. Hypothesis
    • Links several variables to each other
    • In statement form
    • Simple but precise
    • Statement about relationship between at least two observable variables
  12. Types of Hypotheses
    • Differences (How does X differ from Y?)
    • Relationships (How is X related to Y?)
    • Change (X increases over time)
    • Directed (Correlation between X and Y)
    • Undirected (No correlation between X and Y)
    • Specified (X = 2Y)
    • Unspecified (X¬†> Y)
  13. Conceptual Hypothesis
    General Idea
  14. Research Hypothesis
    Operational Hypothesis
  15. Statistical Hypothesis
    • Null Hypothesis (H0)
    • Alternative Hypothesis (H1)
  16. Variable
    factor that can vary or change in ways that can be measured, observed, and verified
  17. Types of variables
    • Simple (age) vs. Complex (political attitude)
    • Concrete (height) vs. Abstract (attitudes
    • Construct: variable that is not directly observable
  18. Criteria for Observations
    • Objectivity
    • Reliability
    • Validity
  19. Operational Definition
    • Specifies operations or procedures used to produce or measure something
    • Gives a numerical value to what you want to manipulate or measure
  20. Types of Variables
    • Independent variable
    • Dependent variable
    • Confounding variable
    • Control variable
  21. How is data collected?
    • Interview¬†
    • Systematic Observation
    • Survey
    • Experiment
  22. Scales of Measurement
    • Nominal Scale
    • Alternative (either/or) (e.g. sex)
    • Categorical (ethnicity)
    • Ordinal Scale: rank order
    • Metric Scale
    • Interval (scale with arbitrary zero)
    • Ratio scale (with a meaningful zero point)

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