archaeology - Egypt
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Egyptians have been making pyramids 2000 years before herodotus went there
Egypt aka ___?
- gift of the nile
- egyptians relied on the nile to bring in fertile soil that was necessary and dependent on for agriculture
- nile was a means of stability
- - (ca 3100 BCE)
- - dated to be of the predynastic period when the first pharoah narmar was in rule and said to have been responsible for unifying two kingdoms (upper & lower egypt)
- Although king narmar was pictured in several scenes on the palette there is a number of theories for its meanings. possible interpretation is the unification of upper and lower egypt
- early symbol of egyptian kingship with a horus falcon on top usually representing the kings palace
- pharoahs in 1st and 2nd dynasty were buried in Abydos, oldest city in ancient Egypt, in shaft tombs called Mastaba's that is decorated like a palace
explain the development of the great pyramids?
- 1.) To understand the development of
- pyramid building we must look to a time before they were built.
- Pyramids dont just rise out of nowhere.
- They are but one part of a much larger funerary complex
2.) in the 3rd dynasty using the concept of the mastaba, an egyptian tomb with flat roof, Pharoah Djoser commissioned a pharoah architect, Imhotep, to build him a pyramid. Takes the Mastabaand places one layer on top of the other. Hence forming steps that is known as Djosers stepped pyramid , one of the first pyramids in the world (2691-2625)
3.) (2613-2589 BC) In the 4th dynasty, king Sneferu set out to build a pyramid and had 3 built over his time. Used the same concept out of stone, but with straighter sides. His pyramid had a bend in its shape that he did not favor so he built another which we refer to as a "true pyramid"
4.) 2558-2532 BC, Khafre built the second largest pyramid in Giza. Khufu the first and Menkaure the last and smallest of the great pyramids, but most elaborate.
- - egyptian priest and historian in the 3rd century BC that set off to write the history of egypt.
- - Wrote against herodotus, but dont have his original work (we only know about his idead through other writers that quoted him)
- (2060-2010 BCE)
- - First pharoah of middle kingdom. after period of pyramid building turmoil arises and local nomarchs begin to insert their influence and are a continued threat to the power of the pharoah
- - Mentuhotep unifies land and restores pharaonic rule thus styling himself as "living god"/Sematawy (one who unites two lands)
- - didnt take the risk of building large pyramids, but invested in mortuary temples or saff tombs
Amenemhet III & Amenemhet IV
- reverted to pyramid building with ruble cores.
- constant struggle between pharaoh & high ruling officials
hyksos were foreign groups associated also with egypts foreign rule. They set up in the nile delta
- king who reigned in the end part of the hyksos dynasty
- assumed to have died in battle due to his wounds
The new Kingdom
- hyksos were expelled
- started building tombs
- female but not first female pharoah
- important as to how she gained the thrown
- her father was tuthmosis I who was greatly concerned with his succession so he made his daughter hatshepsut marry his son, her brother, hatshepsut II.
- tuthmosis II also concerned about succession therefore has his son tuthmosis III crowned as a child to stall any plans Hatsheput has (power for women were bound up bc of the succession of the pharaoh)
- Tuthmosis III was very young when his father died so Hatshepsut ruled for him and makes an image for herself.
- Hatshepsut makes up a thing such as the birth relief that states that she is divine and styles herself as pharaoh
- When she dies tuthmosis III tries to erase her from egypts memory
- referred to as napolean of egypt
- spends time in military
- expands borders of egypt; makes it an empire
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