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What is exponential growth?
An accelerating growth of a population. On a graph, it produces a J-shape against time.
What is a population?
A population is all the individuals of a species that occupy a particular geographic area at the certain time. Populations increase when individuals reproduce at rates that are greater than the rate of individuals dying. (e.g. population of humans, animals, plants, etc)
What are limiting factors?
Restrictions from growth, distribution and size of population. (e.g. a trout needs food and nutrients to grow and reproduce, as well as the water of body to have the pH level)
What is the carrying capacity and equilibrium of a population?
The size of the population that can be supported indefinitely by the available resources and services of an ecosystem. When a population reaches its carrying capacity, it is at an equilibrium, which means the balance between opposing forces.
What is urban sprawl?
Urban sprawl is the growth of a low-density development on the edges of urban areas. People build homes and businesses near the edge of a city, thus increasing the carrying capacity. This will increase dependence in automobiles, decreased farmland, etc..
What is an ecological niche?
An ecological niche is the way an organism occupies a position, including abiotic and biotic factors. (e.g. a brown bat - biotic factors: bugs it eats, its competitors, its predators. Abiotic: places to sleep, the time it hunts, airspace...) The organism provides the ecosystem with something.
What is a bog and how can plants survive in one?
A bog is a type of wetland in which the water is acidic and low in nutrients. Plants living in the bog, like the pitcher plant, can't get nutrients from the soil, so they eat bugs to get them.
What are the two population regulations?
Bottom-up regulation and top-down regulation. Bottom-up regulation is where a plant-eating species, or a primary consumer, consumes too much of the primary PRODUCER, and the population decreases. The secondary consumer will have less of the primary consumer, and its population will also decrease. Top-down regulation is where the population of a lower trophic level increases, then the higher trophic level increases, becaus they have more food, which makes the lower level decrease, and with less food, the higher level decreases as well.
What is competition?
When two or more organisms compete for the same resources. If a population of a species increases, so does competition. (e.g. if the population of a robin increases, there will be competition. More energy will be used for competition than laying eggs, so there will be less eggs). With competition, an organisms niche will become smaller.
What is mutualism and parasitism?
- Mutualism - a symbiotic relationship between two organisms where both benefit from eachother (e.g. coral get energy and color from algae, and gives algae, protection and nutrients).
- Parasitism - a symbiotic relationship where only one organism benefits from the other (e.g. a brainworm completes its life cycle in a white tailed deer, but the deer doesn't benefit from the relationship).
What is doubling time and ecological footprint?
- Doubling time - The period of time that is required for a population to double. As of right now, in about 60 years, the human population will double.
- Ecological footprint - a measure if the impact of an individual or a population on the environment. In terms of energy consumption, land use, etc.
What is sustainable use, unsustainable and sustainability?
- Sustainable use - use that does not lead to long-term depletion of a resource nor affect the ecosystem from where the the resource was taken from. e.g. water
- Unsustainable - a pattern of activity that leads to a decline in the function of an ecosystem. e.g. fossil fuels
- Sustainability - Use of Earth's resources that can continue forever. e.g. using water carefully
What are ecosystem services?
Benefits experiences by organisms (including humans) that are provided by sustainable ecosystems. e.g. food and clean water
What is desertification and watershed?
- Desertification - The change from non-desert land to a desert. May be caused from climate change, etc
- Watershed - the area of land over which the run-off drains into a body of water.