History Assessment

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History Assessment
2014-09-24 00:22:58

Chapters 1-4
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  1. Homo Sapiens Sapiens
    • wise, wise human beings
    • Africa b/w 200,000 and 150,000 yrs ago
  2. Hittites:
    • Indo-European group who moved into Asia Minor and Anatolia (modern Turkey) in 1750BC
    • First  Indo-European's to make use of iron
    • Borrowed a lot of language, literature, art, law, and religion from Mesopotamia
  3. Yangtze
    • Climates were much more mild
    • People settled mainly around rivers because it was a source of life
  4. Cuneiform
    • literally means 'wedged shaped;
    • pictographic
    • written on broken/wet shards of clay
  5. Hieroglyphs
    • glyph- writing
    • hiero-sacred
    • used mostly for a spiritual purpose
    • only scribes knew how to write/draw these symbols
  6. Ziggurat
    • a temple dedicated to the chief god of the city
    • atop a massive stepped tower that reached toward heaven
  7. Sargon
    • 2340-2100BC
    • ruled mostly through military strategy
  8. Hammurabi
    • 1790BC
    • First to establish a written law code
    • Two Principles:
    • 1. punishments depended on the social rank of the person
    • 2. offenders should be subjected to the same injury they inflicted
  9. Khufu
    • 2600-2100 BC great pyramids are built
    • the largest is in honor of Khufu
    • Pharaoh of Egypt
  10. Cheops
    Another name for Khufu
  11. Tel el Amarna
  12. Ka
    • Spiritual body of Egyptians
    • mummification fort he comfort of the ka
    • eternity: the way of life for Egyptians is their life is better after death
  13. Osiris
    • Husband to Isis
    • Murdered by his brother Seth- wife Isis brings him back to life but not completely
    • He becomes the god of the Underworld
  14. Phoenicia
    • develop a better alaphabet
    • sail in the Mediterranean b/c it is safe
    • sail to Carthage and claim it as a city
  15. David
    • 962 BC: conquers Jerusalem
    • Zion: City of David
    • David took the ark of covenant and brought it to Jerusalem
    • reunited Israelites; defeated Philistines and made Jerusalem the capital
  16. Yahweh
    • One God
    • Ten Commandments
    • I AM WHO AM
    • God of the Israelites
  17. Torah
    • spiritual way of life
    • was the word of Yahweh to the people
  18. Akhnaton
    • pharaoh of Egypt
    • worship of one god instead of many-Aten
    • moved the capital form Thebes to Akhnaten
    • was married to Nefertiti
    • both were assassinated
  19. Shahanshah
  20. Shang Dynasty
    • 1600-1100 BC
    • Sino-Tibetan language
    • used stone and bronze tools
    • capital: Anyang
    • veneration of ancestors
    • rice in the south and wheat/barley in the north
  21. Daoism
    • the teachings of Lao Tzu
    • true way to interpret the will of Heaven is not action but inaction
    • let nature take it's course
    • Dao De Jing- TheWay of Tao
  22. Qin Empire:
    • 221-206 BC
    • first emperor (Qin Shi Huangdi) banned Confucius
    • divided country into states/provinces
    • standardized Chinese system of writing
  23. Han Empire
    • 202 BC-221 AD
    • bets civil service of all the dynasties
    • restored Confucius; Imperial University;
    • sacrosacnt status: emperor is sacred
    • engage in trade w/ other countries- India, Japan, Romans, Korea
  24. Mandarins
    Is a language but they were considered the nobility in ancient China; Mandarin is what they spoke so it is now the national language
  25. "Equal Field" system
  26. Sima Qian
    • historian during the Qin Dynasty
    • wrote of the military practices;conquers;
  27. Han writing
    restoration of Confucius
  28. Lost Wax casting
    • melted wax in mold is replaced by molten metal
    • used in burials for emperors or the wealthy
  29. Sun Tzu
    • lived in the 5th century BC
    • "The Art of War"
    • the principles of war not on actual weapons, technologies, etc,
  30. Lao Tzu
    • wrote the "The Way of the Tao"
    • wasn't written until after his death
  31. Xian
    • town in China
    • 1974: a farmer came across ancient bronze weapons and 6,000 terracotta soldiers and horses
    • all the faces were different
    • it's believed to be the sight of Qin's burial sight
  32. Meritocracy
    Belief in being actually qualified for a specific job rather than obtaining it due to connections or being a family member
  33. Persepolis
    the capital of Persia during the reign of Darius I
  34. Darius I
    • 522-486BC
    • took the law of Hammurabi and changed it- added new laws and took some ideas from Egyptian laws
    • into. a unified system of weights and measurements
    • currency
  35. Zoroaster
    • born in 660 BC
    • found  'true religion' and went around preaching his philosophies
    • Zend Avesta: sacred book of Zoroastianism
    • Ahuramazda: supreme deity and 'creator of all things'
  36. Aryans
    • Indo-European speaking people
    • inhabited the areas north and east of the Black and Caspian Seas
    • technological advancements- irrigation, dev, of writing (based on Arabic), clearing of dense areas
  37. Mauryan Empire
    • Chandragrupta Maurya: 324-301BC
    • capital of the empire- Pataliputra
    • Arthasastra: happiness in the king lies in the happiness of his people
    • Class and Caste sytsems
  38. Brahmins
    • the priestly class
    • top of the social scale
    • literally means 'one possessed of Brahmin'
  39. Varna
    • literally 'color'
    • mistakenly translated into 'caste' in English
    • they are really Indian classes
  40. Shiva
    • one of the major gods in Indian culture
    • known as the creator and destroyer
  41. Samsara
    • the turning wheel of life
    • the concept of reincarnation
  42. Asoka
    • grandchild of Chandragrupta
    • 304-233 BC
    • pronounced warfare 'disgusting' and adopted the philosophies of Buddhism
    • known Asoka the Great
  43. Aten or Aton
    the primary god and only god according to Akhnaton
  44. Fertile Crescent
    • the land between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
    • the site of all early/ancient civilizations
  45. Sumer
    • permanent buildings
    • irrigation system
    • schooling system-upper class
    • sun dried bricks
    • plow, bronze tools, weapons
    • calendar based on moon and stars
    • everyone else to them was 'uncivilized'
  46. Mesopotamia
    • "Land between two Rivers"
    • Cuneiform
    • Sargon and Hammurabi's Empires
    • Polytheistic religion
  47. Arthasastra
    • laid out the duties of a king
    • compared sometimes to Machiavelli's 'The Prince'
  48. Vedas
    • oral history
    • rigveda: tells about the early people of India' warriors, kings/chiefs (raja and maha-raja)
  49. Gautama Siddartha
    • 563-483BC
    • Indian Prince and in 534 BC renounced everything physical and started to wander and having visions, awakenings,
    • founder of Buddhism
    • goal is to reach Nirvana
    • there are no gods associated with Buddhism
  50. Nirvana
    • 4 noble truths
    • 1. all life is filled with suffering
    • 2. all suffering is caused by desires of the flesh
    • 3. reaching a state of Nirvana is the only way to stop there desires
    • 4. the path to Nirvana is guided by 8 principles
    • 8 fold path: right or worthy:
    • 1. ideas
    • 2. thought
    • 3. speech
    • 4. actions
    • 5. living
    • 6. effort
    • 7. conciousness
    • 8. meditation
  51. Qin Shi Haungdi
    • first emperor of Qin Dynasty
    • did not agree with Confucius' teachings-banned writings and teachings
    • was a legalist: if a gov. allows subjects too much freedom there will be chaos
  52. Taoism:
    Another spelling/name for Daoism
  53. The Book of Songs
    • written by Confucius
    • the guiding principles of Chinese society
  54. The Analects
    • writings of Confucius that weren't down until after his death
    • family and relationships are the most important thing
    • family is the model for everything in the country- father=emperor; citizens=family
  55. Mandate of Heaven
    • emperor is legitamate
    • because he is not elected he owes much to his people
    • if an emperor is overthrown he has lost the Mandate of Heaven
  56. Period of Warring States
    Before the Qin Dynasty in northwestern China there was constant feuding among the states
  57. Xi-Xhang:
    the Tibetan language in China is referred to as this
  58. Zhou Dynasty
    • rulers tried to unify China
    • looked for the most capable people to run society
    • civil service: pol. app. are only at the top-kind of like a tenure
  59. Iron-tipped plow
    developed during the Zhou Dynasty
  60. Art of War
    • written by Sun Tzu
    • based on the principles of war not the actual technology
  61. Burning of Books
    the burning of Confucius' writings under the ruler Qin Shi Huangdi
  62. Shih chi=annals
    • chronicles of the royal families and what they did
    • was based mostly on the inventions, engineering, and science done throughout the dynasties
  63. The Way of the Dao
    • the book written by Lauzi
    • the best empire is the least government
    • all extremes should be avoided; govern only when needed
  64. The Sternpost Rudder
    • steering device mounted on the outside or rear
    • of the hull. It could be lowered or raised according to the
    • depth of the water. This type of rudder made it possible to steer
    • through crowded harbors, narrow channels, and river rapids.
  65. Eleutheria
    Greek for Liberty
  66. Heinrich Schliemann
    • 1822-1890 AD
    • wanted to prove Homer's story was true
    • found the treasures in modern day Turkey
    • took them back to Germany
  67. Peloponnesus
    • island in Greek attached by a tiny isthmus in the mainland
    • Sparta and Olympia are located on Peloponnesus
  68. Polis
    Greek work for 'city'
  69. Deme
    subdivision in Athens or Attica
  70. Solon
    • brings in a more modern idea for law penalties
    • institutes a new currency
    • did not find it healthy for one person to hold onto some much power
  71. Ekklesia
    • all free male Athenians- have a voice in all laws
    • met in the center of Athens below the Akropolis
  72. Boule
    • council of 500 men
    • chosen for one year by the other men in  he ekklesia
  73. Helots
    • captives of their war conquerings and were forced to work for the Spartans 
    • mostly the manual work- farming, cooking, etc
  74. Thermopylae
    • Spartans, a group of 300 hold off 20,000 Persians (the immortals-elite group)
    • except for 1 all 300 die in the battle
    • Persians are later defeated completely in Athens
  75. Acropolis
    • high point of the city
    • in Athens it is where the Parthenon sits
  76. Hellas
    how Greeks refer to their country as
  77. Hellenes
    • the nationality name
    • they are Hellenes
  78. Socrates
    • 470-399 BC
    • first person to ask 'truth questions'
    • focus on the human being
    • question and answer method (Socratic Method/Seminars)
  79. Poseidon
    Greek god of the sea
  80. Homonoia
  81. Phillip II of Macedon
    • comes in after the Peloponnesian War and takes all the Greek cities
    • wants to move east to the Persian Empire
    • Phillip is assassinated and his son ascends the throne
  82. Parthenon
    • erected in the time of Pericles- 447-422 BC
    • built in honor of Athena
    • 42ft high statue of Athena made of ivory and gold- disappeared in antiquity and no one knows where it went
  83. Seleucid monarchy
    • after death of Alexander the Great the empire was divided into provinces
    • Seleucus was given a province in present day Afghanistan
  84. Herakles
    • also known as Hercules
    • tragedy written by Euripides
    • Greek hero who goes to the underworld to save his wife and children but if cursed and goes into a frenzy killing them
  85. Sir Arthur Evans
    • 1851-1941 AD
    • came to Crete- found the Minoan civilization
  86. Baron Pierre de Coubertin
    • 1863-1937 AD
    • reformed the Olympics and were held every 4 years
    • opening ceremonies- Greece is first and host country is always last
  87. Legalism:
    if the government lets the subjects do too much there is chaos
  88. Kingdom of Wei
    • Wei Dynasty
    • period of 'Three Kingdoms'
    • Shijia System: men had to join the army or do labor from generation to generation
  89. Insonomia
    Greek for 'Freedom'
  90. Athena
    • goddess of wisdom and war
    • Parthenon is dedicated to her
    • was orginally just a city deity but later evolved into a panhellenic goddess
  91. Ostrakon
    • kicked out of city for 10 years- had to move to a different city
    • poll was taken each year on who would be thrown out
    • written down on broken
    • shards of clay
  92. Barbaroi
    not how one acts but how they hear their language (ex. Persians)
  93. Draco
    • 621 BC
    • thought there was too many contradictions in the law code
    • revised laws so that almost all the law sentences were the death penalty
  94. Cleisthenes
    • 508-594 BC
    • believed people should have the final word in gov. (males over 21)
    • Athenian gov: capable of gov. being ruled by its people
  95. Kshatriya
    warrior class in India caste system
  96. Lycurgus
    • lawgiver of Sparta who established the military reformation of Spartan society
    • this was in accordance of the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi
  97. Xerxes
    • 480- Emperor of Persia: decides to attack the Greeks again
    • Battle of Thermopoylae
  98. the Immortals
    elite group of Persian warriors
  99. Salamis
    • Greek city-states vs. the Persian Empire
    • Salamis is an island off the coast near Athens
  100. Darius III
    • emperor at the time of Alexander the Great's invasion
    • was killed by Alexander's men
  101. Demeter
    goddess of fertility
  102. Hetairai
    entertainers for mean (sometimes prostitutes) but were actually very well educated women who kept the men company
  103. Olympias
    • wife to Phillip II of Macedon
    • mother to Alexander the Great
    • taught her son the great poets; brought Aristotle to tutor Alexander;
    • teaches him generosity and respect for women
  104. The Clouds
    comedy by written by Aristophenes
  105. Pergamum (Pergamon)
    established the Attalid dynasty in Asia minor after the death of Alexander the Great when the empire was split into provinces
  106. Attica:
    island in Greece where Athens is located
  107. Zeus Pater
    • head god
    • father of all gods and people
  108. Callisthenes
    • nephew to Aristotle
    • went on Alexander's conquers and wrote back to his uncle all that was going on