Chapter 24 Bio T1 **

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  1. population genetics
    • purpose of sex is genetic variability (variability is good!).
    • phenotype variation - environment and evolution
  2. gene pool
    source of all DNA in a population (every allele every single gene)
  3. monomorphic allele
    • single allele/fixed gene 
    • vital genes for making certain proteins. If wrong you... die
  4. single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)
    • 90% of variation is from here
    • little changes in a gene 
    • large, healthy population = high genetic diversity
  5. hardy weinberg equation
    • p + q = 1
    • p^2 + 2pq + q^2 = 1

    • p is dominant (from gene pool)
    • q is recessive
    • p^2 is frequency of dominant GENOTYPE 
    • 2pq F of heterozygous genotype 
    • q^2 is F of homozygous recessive genotype
  6. equilibrium can only occur
    • the population is very large
    • mating is random
    • no selection
    • no net change in pool due to mutation 
    • no migration in or out
  7. If not in equilibrium
    an evolutionary mechanism is at work
  8. Microevolution
    • new genetic variation 
    • mutation 
    • gene duplication 
    • horizontal gene transfer (ie bacteria)
    • no major factor dictating allele frequency
  9. macroevolution
    • evolutionary mechanism 
    • random genetic drift
    • migration
    • nonrandom mating
    • widespread
  10. natural selection
    beneficial traits that are heritable become more common in successive generations

    • overtime NS results in adaption 
    • (ie elephant nose, giraffe neck)
  11. NS reproductive success
    • surviving long enough to reproduce (get to reproductive age)
    • reproduce more than competitors
  12. Modern Natural Selection
    • Variation in population 
    • Some have proteins that can live longer
    • Contribute to gene pool of the next generation
    • Can alter characteristics of population over time
  13. NS Patterns
    • Directional 
    • Stabilizing
    • Distributive
    • Balancing
  14. Directional selection
    Image Upload
  15. Stabilizing selection

    middle is favoured Image Upload
  16. Disruptive Selection

    both extremes survive
    Image Upload
  17. Balancing Selection
    heterozygote has the advantage (so sort of like balancing)
  18. sexual selection
    • deciding who you're going to mate with 
    • instrasexual - within same sex (ie M vs M for F)
    • intersexual - female choice
  19. Genetric Drift
    • More of an issue in smaller population
  20. Fixation
    • only 1 allele in population 
    • ie mitochondria gene
  21. bottle neck
    population is dramatically reduced then rebuilds (have less diversity and not good b/c if something happens that has that trait, then will die out
  22. founder effect
    one group starts a new population. As multiply, grow and diversify
  23. non random mating
    • assoratative mating - like phenotypes more likely to mate
    • disassortive mating -(opposites attract) favours heterozygosity
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Chapter 24 Bio T1 **
2014-09-23 22:24:53
chapter 24 biology test

biology test 1 chapter 24
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