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Differentiate between heliocentric and the geocentric models.
- Geocentric model: Earth at the center of the universe - Ptolemy
- Heliocentric model: Sun at center of the universe, Earth revolves around it - Copernicus
Describe the formation of the solar system, the Earth and the Moon.
Formation of the Earth: Planetesimals combined to form the Earth
Formation of the Moon: Large object impacted the Earth, parts of mantle blown into orbit, moon formed from this material
Describe the Great Bombardment
rain of material / meteors, growth of planet = 20 metric tons per day
Why did differentiation of the Earth occur?
Be able to label the layers of the Earth.
Differentiate between the outer and inner core
Heat from collisions, dense material sank to center & lighter material rose to surface.
CORE (Inner and Outer), Mantle, Crust
- Outer core - Liquid
- Inner core - solid
State Kepler's First Law of Planetary Motion.
Describe an ellipse - how many foci or centers does an ellipse have?
Kepler's First law: the orbit of every planet is an ellipse with the sun at one of the 2 foci
Know all the planetary idiosyncrasies from the notes.
Know the order of the planets from the sun
Name the smallest and largest planet.
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto
2 types of planets - Inner Terrestrial & Outer Jovian
Smallest - Mercury, Largest - Jupiter
How did the Earth's atmosphere form?
Describe outgassing. By what process did oxygen increase on Earth?
Describe photosynthesis by equation and in words.
Outgassing - gases released from Earth's interior by volcanoes and fissures
Photosynthesis increased the amount of oxygen on Earth
- Photosynthesis uses sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water to make their food -
- CO2 + H2O -> C6H12O6 + O2 + H2O
Describe the moons and rings of the outer planets. List any special characteristics of Io, Europa and Titan.
Dozens of moons circling Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune
Io - Jupiter's 1st moon, only moon with active volcanoes
- Europa - Jupiter's 2nd moon,
- Galileo Spacecraft - conditions are most suitable for life,
- Voyager - smooth surface of frozen water
- Possibility of an ocean under the surface of ice layer
- Titan - Saturn -1 of largest moons
- Composed of rock, frozen water, and liquid methane(CH4), O
- n top of black goo and organic molecules may be present
Where and what is the Kuiper belt?
Pluto is the beginning of the KUIPER BELT - disk shaped collection of comets and rocks
How was our Moon formed?
Big Splash, large object impacted the Earth, parts of mantle blown into orbit (moon formed from this material) lol
What is the difference between weight and mass?
How much would you weigh on the moon?
MASS - amount of matter an objects contains
WEIGHT - gravity acting on an object at a specific point (Weight would be less on the moon 1/6th of Earth weight)
Differentiate between a meteor, meteoroid and a meteorite.
Describe comets and asteroids.
Meteoroids - small ancient debris orbiting the sun
Meteor - when a meteoroid enters the Earth's atmosphere & begins to burn (shooting star)
Meteorite - any part of the meteor that survives Earth's atmosphere & falls to the ground as rocky material (original solar system material)
Asteroids - Rocky material orbiting the sun, ASTEROID BELT between Mars & Jupiter, some cross Earth's orbit & possibly impact the Earth
Comets - Dirty snowballs of water, ice, & methane
- Comets fall towards the sun (tail blown away from the sun by solar wind)
- Ex: Halley's Comet - orbits the sun every 76 years
Impact of large comet or asteroid hit Earth near the Yucatan Peninsula, causing the extinction of dinosaurs
Name the Jovian planets and the Terrestrial planets.
a) Differentiate between the inner Terrestrial and outer Jovian planets.
b) Which planets have the most moons, no moons? Why?
c) Be able to use a scale (refer to Solar System lab)
d) Which planet would have the greatest/least pull of gravity? Why?
Terrestrial Planets - Mercury, Venus, Earth, & Mars
Jovian Planets - Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
Mercury has the least amount of gravitational pull & Jupiter has the most (due to their sizes)
Which planet has the longest/shortest year (revolution), which planet has the shortest / longest day (rotation)?
Longest year - Neptune
Shortest year - Mercury
Longest Day - Venus
Shortest Day - Jupiter
Define earthquake, volcano, tsunami
Earthquake - Rocks breaks along fault, a large amount of energy transmitted as a wave (seismic wave), measured using the richter scale.
Volcano - Magma (lava under earth's surface) break through the surface and becomes lava.
Tsunami - Large tidal wave! Water recedes then huge gush of water.
Differentiate between magma and lava
- magma - lava under earth's surface
- Lava - above the surface
Describe the Richter and Mercalli scales.
a) Which is more scientific?
Richter Scale - Measures the amount of energy released. (Most Scientific)
Mercalli Scale - has a range from I to XII (roman numerals) based on the damage intensity observed.
What was Bacon’s observation?
That the continents fit together like a puzzle. He was an explorer and worked with maps not a scientist.
What is the theory of continental drift and who came up with it?
a) What was the name of the super continent?
Alfred Wegner 1800-1900s he was a German Scientist, came up with the continental drift. Continents were once a part of a super continent Pangaea.
List the 3 pieces of evidence for the above theory.
a) Give a brief description of each.
b) What is the current evidence that supports the theory?
a) Mapping the Ocean Floors - Ocean floor is dynamic. Canyons, mountains earthquake, volcanoes lava flow. Mid-Atlantic Ridge-Earth's longest mountain range.
Magnetic Reversals - (rocks with magnetic mineral) Earth's magnetic field changes periodically. North and South poles switch. 300 reversals in 200 million years. Why reversals? Scientists do not know. Lava flows from fissures in ocean floors - crystals containing magnetite align to the magnetic field. Lava hardens - the minerals are "frozen" in place indicating the orientation of earth's magnetic field.
Paleomagnetism - study of the record of Earth's magnetic field. As moltenn rock comes to the surface, it cools locking in place the magnetite mineral 'compass'. More molten rock comes to the surface. Produces alternating bands magnetic orientation.
b) New support for the Theory - Measuring motion of continents. Radio astronomy is measured arrival of radio waves repeated over several years. North America and Europe - separating at 5cm per year.
Define lithosphere, asthenosphere.
Lithosphere - crust & solid part of the mantle. Plates that are moving slowly on top of the asthenosphere (on top)
Asthenosphere - molten part of the mantle