Biologic damage resulting from ionizing radiation occurs on three levels:
Low-energy x-ray photons, produced at lower kVp settings, are more likely to be ____
The measurement of radiation absorbed inside the patient is called the
When ionizing radiation interacts with vital cell structures, the interaction is classified as ____
When ionizing radiation interacts with molecules of water the interaction is classified as ____
a molecule that has no charge but that has a single electron in the outer shell
The interaction between water and ionizing radiation is called the______
radiolysis of water
_______ are injuries to cells that occur when chemical bonds are broken.
LET is a function of both ___and ____.
mass and charge
Low-LET radiation includes ____ & _____rays, which do not cause much ionization along their track.
x-rays and gamma
____-LET radiation includes alpha particles, ions of heavier nuclei, and charged particles , they are more likely to cause biologic damage but exhaust their energy in a rather short track.
Remember that as the LET of radiation ______, the potential biologic damage increases.
_____, or programmed cell death (interphase death), is the term used to describe a cell that dies from radiation exposure before it attempts division. The dose required for apoptosis to occur depends on the type of cell.
____, or genetic, death occurs when cells are exposed to radiation and their ability to reproduce is damaged.
______ A response that is directly proportional to radiation dose; as dose increases, the response rises in equally measured increments.
Linear response :
A response that is not directly proportional to radiation dose.
Nonlinear response :
A point at which a biologic response to radiation first occurs, as in a threshold radiation dose-response relationship.
______ The assumption that a response to radiation exposure will occur at any dose, as in a nonthreshold dose-response relationship.