psycology 1-4

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psycology 1-4
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2014-09-22 18:35:09
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psychology modules 1-4
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  1. Neuroscience perspective
    Focus on the Brain. How the body and brain produce emotions and memories
  2. Evolutionary Perspective
    Natural selection. How does evolution influence behavior
  3. Psychodynamic perspective
    Freud - focus on the unconscious
  4. Cognitive perspective
    Focus on mental processes and cognition - memory and thinking
  5. Behavioral
    Watson and Skinner - focus on learning
  6. Social-cultural Perspective
    Focus on environment
  7. Biopsychosocial Perspective
    Considers many determinants of behavior
  8. basic research
    work aimed at increasing scientific knowledge
  9. Applied research
    scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
  10. Clinical psychology
    study, assess and treats psychological disorders - therapists
  11. Psychiatry
    Branch of medicine that treats psychological disorders
  12. Hindsight bias
    The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it
  13. Critical Thinking
    Examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence and assesses conclusions
  14. the scientific method
    a self correcting process for evaluating ideas with observation and analysis
  15. Theory
    explains with principals that organize observations as predicable behaviors or events
  16. Hypothesis
    testable predictions that direct research
  17. case study
    examines one individual in depth in the hope of revealing things true of us all
  18. Naturalistic observation
    observing behavior in a natural environment
  19. survey
    looks at many cases in less depth
  20. correlation
    one trait or behavior is related to another
  21. positive correlation
    direct relationship between two things
  22. negative correlation
    inverse relationship between two things
  23. research
    systematic investigation to establish facts and reach new conclusions
  24. confirmation bias
    the tendency to search for information that confirms beliefs
  25. research process
    research question -> theory -> hypothesis
  26. operationalism
    how variables are defined and meausured - important for replication
  27. random sample
    everyone has an equal chance of being selected
  28. representative sample
    reflection of the population
  29. experimentation
    manipulation of one variable to observe the effect on some other variable while other variables remain constant
  30. neuron
    nerve cell - basic building block of the nervous system
  31. motor neurons
    carry instructions from the central nervous system out to the body's muscles
  32. interneurons
    process information
  33. soma
    cell body
  34. dendrites
    recover information in the brain
  35. axon
    send information - action potential
  36. axon terminal
    release neurotransmitters
  37. myelin sheath
    speed transmission and insulate the axon
  38. neurotransmitters
    chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gap and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron
  39. types of neurotransmitters
    • Acetylcholine - enables muscle movements 
    • Dopamine - linked to pleasure and reward 
    • GABA - inhibitory 
    • Serotonin - affects mood - linked to depression
  40. parasympathetic nervous system
    conserves energy and calms you
  41. sympathetic nervous system
    arouses and expends energy - makes you alert in exciting situations
  42. somatic nervous system
    controls voluntary movements of skeletal muscles
  43. Autonomic nervous system
    controls self regulated action of internal organs and glands
  44. the endocrine system
    the gland system and hormones
  45. adrenal glands
    release adrenaline and noradrenaline
  46. the pituitary gland
    • controlled by the hypothalamus
    • stimulates physical development and releases oxytocin 
    • also influences the release of hormones by other endocrine glands
  47. hormones
    chemical messengers made and released by glands
  48. synapse
    brief interruption between axons
  49. endorphin
    naturally occurring opiates that block pain
  50. central nervous system
    the decision maker - brain and spinal cord
  51. neural networks
    neurons network with nearby neurons with which they can have short fast connections
  52. spinal cord
    information highway connecting the peripheral nervous system and the brain
  53. Peripheral nervous system
    gathers information and transmits central nervous system decisions to other body parts
  54. nerves
    electrical cables formed of axons - links the central nervous system with the rest of the body
  55. sensory neurons
    carry messages from the body's tissues and sensory receptors inward to the brain and spinal cord for processing
  56. EEG
    measures electricity in the brain
  57. PET scan
    injection of radioactive sugar and tracking of the brains consumption
  58. MRI
    picture of the brain - shows structure
  59. fMRI
    functional - measures structure and function
  60. hemispherectomy
    removal of half the brain
  61. brain plasticity
    brains ability to modify or re-organize itself in response to damage
  62. neurogenesis
    self-repair of the brain by producing new brain cells
  63. colostomy
    cut the corpus collosum in half
  64. hindbrain
    brainstem and cerebellum
  65. midbrain
    limbic system
  66. forebrain
    cerebral cortex
  67. medulla
    basic functions - heart rate and breathing
  68. reticular formation
    keeps you alert and aroused
  69. thalamus
    processes sensory information
  70. cerebellum
    • enables non-verbal learning and memory 
    • helps judge time, modulate emotions and discriminate sounds and textures
    • coordinates voluntary movement
  71. amygdala
    aggression and fear
  72. hypothalamus
    maintenance of hunger, thirst, temperature, etc., reward centers
  73. hippocampus
    process memory
  74. cerebral cortex
    higher level thinking, divided into lobes
  75. frontal lobes
    "CEO" of the brain - judgement, decision making, planning, personality
  76. Parietal lobe
    integration of sensory information, spatial navigation
  77. the sensory cortex
    • recieves incoming messages
    • the more sensitive the body region, the larger the sensory cortex area devoted to it
  78. motor cortex
    • controls motor movements
    • body area requiring more precise control occupy the greatest amount of cortical space
  79. Occipital lobe
    visual processing
  80. temporal lobe
    auditory processing, helps us recognize objects and faces
  81. association areas
    • interpret, integrate, and act on sensory information and link it with stored memories 
    • enable judgement, planning and processing of new memories

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