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Where did humans migrate to in the Paleolithic period.
from Africa, to Eurasia, Australia and the Americas
what does it mean to be egalitarian
the male jobs were important but were just as important in the women's role to survive in mankind.
Archeological evidence of the Paleolithic adapting of technology...
- wider range of tools- stone and wood tools and weapons for protection
- small kindship groups- tribes and family connections to hunt
They exchanged people, ideas and goods
Idea= spread of religion (animistic religions-nature/spirits), cave paintings
how did people adapt to their environments in new ways about 10,000 years ago
- irrigation systems
- domestication of animals for food and for labor
when population increased and urban cities started forming, what development gave concentrated power to elite men over most of the other people in their societies.
pastoralism (domestication of animals and led their herds around grazing regions)
Beginning about 10,000 years ago, the Neolithic Revolution led to the development of new and more economic and social systems such as:
What did agricultural practices lead to?
- climatic change
- permanent agricultural villages
- pastoralism developed
- agricultural communities had to work together to clear land and create water control systems needed for crop production
erosion when overgrazed
How did pastoralism and Agriculture begin to transform human societies?
led to more reliable and abundant food supplies, which increased population
development of elites (high class people)
what did technological innovations lead to?
improvements in production, trade and transportation
Pottery, plows, woven textiles, metallurgy, wheels and wheeled vehicles were all examples of:
improvements in agricultural production, trade and transportation
how did elites accumulate wealth in both pastoralist and agrarian societies?
created more hierarchal social structures and promotes patriarchal forms of social organization.
what is the term civilization normally used for>
To designate large societies with cities and powerful states
what did all civilizations contain?
- generated/complex institutions (ex. Political bureaucracies)
what did the increase of population develop that was violent
new technologies of war and urban defense
who had greater access to resources, produced more surplus food, and experienced growing populations annddd was able to undertake territorial expansion an conquer surrounding states
the early regions of state expansion or empire buildings were.....(3)
Mesopotamia, Babylonia, and the Nile river
who ere often the developers and disseminators of new weapons and modes of transportation?
who both politically and religiously promoted arts and artisanship
Where are these New religions from?
The veldic religion-
Who used these types of writing?
- ancient Egypt/Chinese
who locally to regionally-transregionally traded with who?
Egypt and Nubia
Mesopotamia and Indus Valley
What offers people comforts and faith?
All rulers use religion to justify their imperial rule
what do these use?
- Madate of heaven
- deify their emperors (make them like a god)
- use Zoroastrianism
a written law
hamarabi's law basic example
An eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth
(if you poke out my eye, I poke out yours)
what does Hinduism grow out of
An ethical system or philosophy, not a religion
like Christianity, Ashoka used what to spread Buddhism around?
Buddhism and Christianity encourages _____ _____ while Confucianism emphasized ____
- monastic life
- filial piety
Empires of these locations:
Andean South America
- Persian Empires
- Qin and Han Empire
- Maurya and Gupta Empires
- Phoenicia and its colonies-Greek city-states and colonies- Hellenistic and Roman empires
- Teotihuacan, Maya city-states
in order to organize subjects, rulers created administrative institution
- centralized governments
- elaborate legal system and bureaucracies
what did cities serve as
- centers of trade
- public performances of religious rituals
- political administration for states and empires
why did the Roman, Han, Persian, Mauryan and Gupta empires collapse?
they created political, cultural and administrative difficulties that they could not manage.
what became the bases of transregional trade, communication and exchange networks in the Eastern Hemisphere
Land and water routes
Examples of trade routes
- Eurasian Silk roads
- trans-Saharan caravan routes
- Indian ocean sea lanes
- Mediterranean sea lanes
what changes farming and irrigation techniques?
spread of crops (rice and cotton)
what religions transformed religious and cultural traditions?