chapter 23 glossary

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  1. 3-3-2 rule
    A simple method for rapidly evaluating a patient's anatomy.
  2. Auscultation
    An assessment performed by listening, typically using a stethoscope.
  3. BURP technique
    A method to improve laryngoscopic view through backward, upward, and rightward pressure.
  4. Capnography
    The process of tracking the carbon dioxide in a patient's exhaled breath, which enables Paramedics to objectively evaluate a patient's ventilatory status.
  5. Capnometry
    The determination of the end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide.
  6. Colorimetric device
    Encapsulated pieces of litmus paper over which an exhaled breath flows. When carbon dioxide is in the presence of water, it forms carbonic acid; the pH sensitive litmus paper in the colorimetric device detects this acid and changes color.
  7. Cormack-Lehane grading system
    A quantitative measure system that grades the view of the glottic opening by how much is occluded by the tongue.
  8. Digital intubation
    An endotracheal intubation technique that uses the Paramedic's hand to identify laryngeal structures and to guide tube placement.
  9. DOPE
    A mnemonic Paramedics use to help remember the causes of problem intubations. (D) displaced endotracheal tube; (O) obstructions of the endotracheal tube, (P) possibility of a pneumothorax; (E), indicates equipment failure.
  10. Elastic gum bougie
    A device made entirely of wound gum rubber, with a hard, smooth, and round plastic tip, that resembles a very long stylet. The device is directed through the vocal cords and into the trachea to serve as a guide for an endotracheal tube.
  11. End-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2)
    A standard method of measurement and monitoring carbon dioxide levels used for both confirming endotracheal tube placement and monitoring patient status, ventilation, and continuing tube placement.
  12. Endotracheal tube
    The basic tool which provides a conduit for oxygenation and ventilation between the patient's lungs and the ventilator (person or machine).
  13. Esophageal intubation detection devices (EDD)
    Devices used to confirm endotracheal tube placement. Two major styles of these devices exist: self-inflating bulbs and syringe style aspirators.
  14. Esophageal-tracheal Combitube (ETC)
    A rescue device placed into the esophagus that allows tracheal placement. The double-lumen design allows for endotracheal as well as esophageal intubation.
  15. Etomidate
    A sedative that functions primarily as a hypnotic, although it also is an excellent amnestic.
  16. External laryngeal manipulation
    A technique used to improve visualization of the glottic opening in which the Paramedic performs direct laryngoscopy with his left hand while manipulating the larynx with his right hand.
  17. Head elevated laryngoscopic position (HELP)
    A patient position that places the head in extension along the atlanto-occipital joints, bringing the pharyngeal, laryngeal, and oral axes into alignment using an elevation pillow.
  18. Laryngeal mask airway
    A blindly inserted airway device designed to be used in situations where face-mask ventilation was inappropriate but the invasiveness of endotracheal intubation was not necessary.
  19. Laryngoscope
    The primary, compact, and self-contained device healthcare providers use to visualize the larynx.
  20. LEMON law
    Mnemonic used to predict a difficult airway. (L) Look externally for anything that will hinder ventilation or intubation; (E) Evaluate the 3-3-2 rule; (M) Mallampati classification; (O)Obstruction; (N) Neck mobility
  21. Lighted stylettes
    Malleable stylettes with a bright light source at the distal end and a power source at the proximal end. When placed in the trachea, a bright, well-circumscribed light is seen in the midline of the trachea.
  22. Macintosh blade
    A curved laryngoscope blade with common sizes from 1 to 4 with a large flange and flat surfaces to control the tongue.
  23. Miller blade
    A straight laryngoscope blade with common sizes from 00 to 4 with a small and curved flange designed to open a conduit to the larynx on the right side of the mouth and hold the tongue in the midline to the left side of the mouth.
  24. Nasogastric tube
    A single-lumen tube passed through the nose into the stomach to evacuate air from the stomach.
  25. Nasotracheal intubation
    The process of aiding respiration by placing an endotracheal tube through the patient's nostril and into the trachea.
  26. Needle cricothyroidotomy
    A type of surgical airway performed by piercing the cricothyroid membrane, allowing rapid access to an otherwise obstructed airway.
  27. Orogastric tube
    A single-lumen tube passed through the mouth into the stomach to evacuate air from the stomach.
  28. Orotracheal intubation
    The most common technique used to intubate patients, in which a laryngoscope is used to visualize the larynx and the vocal cords, and an endotracheal tube is observed to pass through the vocal cords.
  29. Paraglossal approach
    An intubation technique that involves inserting the entire length of the laryngoscope blade blindly into the esophagus and then slowly withdrawing the blade under direct visualization.
  30. Percutaneous cricothyrotomy
    A surgical technique used to gain entry to the trachea through placement of a needle, then guidewire, then a small bore tracheostomy tube in a rapid fashion with less bleeding than a traditional surgical cricothyrotomy.
  31. Rescue devices
    Airway management tools used when intubation is not successful, such as a blind insertion airway device.
  32. Stylet
    A commonly used adjunct to oral intubation that provides rigidity to the endotracheal tube.
  33. Surgical cricothyroidotomy
    A surgical procedure to gain entry to the trachea through the anterior neck..
  34. Tracheobronchial suctioning
    Direct suctioning of the secretions in the bronchial tree.
  35. Translaryngeal illumination
    Using a lighted stylet during endotracheal intubation to take advantage of the larynx's proximity to the anterior surface of the neck.
  36. Transtracheal jet ventilation (TTJV)
    Ventilation of the lungs using special high-pressure devices through a large bore catheter placed through the cricothyroid membrane, which is a commonly taught and performed emergent oxygenation technique.
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chapter 23 glossary
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