Biology Chapter 3

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Biology Chapter 3
2014-09-23 15:05:45
Biology Chapter
Biology Chapter 3
Biology Chapter 3
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  1. What is an Organic Compound?
    Contains Carbon
  2. What is a Phosphate Group?
    A functional group or radical comprised of phosphorus attached to four oxygen, and with a net negative charge, thus represented as PO4-
  3. What is a Polymer?
    A molecule composed of many similar or identical molecular subunits; starch is a polymer of glucose.
  4. What is a Monomer?
    The smallest chemical subunit of a polymer. The monosaccharide α-glucose is the monomer found in plant starch, a polysaccharide.
  5. What is a Macromolecule?
    An extremely large biological molecule; refers specifically to proteins, nucleic acids, polysaccharides, lipids, and complexes of these.
  6. What is Condensation Reaction ?
    any of a class of organic reactions in which two molecules combine, usually in the presence of a catalyst, with elimination of water or some other simple molecule. The combination of two identical molecules is known as self-condensation. Aldehydes, ketones, esters, alkynes (acetylenes), and amines are among several organic compounds that combine with each other and, except for amines, among themselves to form larger molecules, many of which are useful intermediate compounds in organic syntheses. Catalysts commonly used in condensation reactions include acids, bases, the cyanide ion, and complex metal ions.
  7. What is Ribose?
    a sugar of the pentose class that occurs widely in nature as a constituent of nucleosides and several vitamins and enzymes.
  8. What is Glucose?
    A common six-carbon sugar (C6H12O6); the most common monosaccharide in most organisms.
  9. What is Maltose?
    a sugar produced by the breakdown of starch, e.g., by enzymes found in malt and saliva. It is a disaccharide consisting of two linked glucose units.
  10. What is Sucrose?
    Sucrose is a sugar, the organic compound commonly known as table sugar, cane sugar, beet sugar or, usually, just sugar. Saccharose is an obsolete name for sugars in general, especially sucrose.[3] A white, odorless, crystalline powder with a sweet taste, it is best known for its role in food. The molecule is a disaccharide composed of themonosaccharides glucose and fructose with the molecular formula C12H22O11.
  11. What is Starch? `
    An insoluble polymer of glucose; the chief food storage substance of plants.
  12. What is a Tryglceride?
    an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids.[1] As a blood lipid, it helps enable the bidirectional transference of adipose fat and blood glucose from the liver. There are many triglycerides: depending on the oil source, some are highly unsaturated, some less so.
  13. What is a Saturated fat?
    A fat composed of fatty acids in which all the internal carbon atoms contain the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms
  14. What is an Unsaturated Fat?
    A fat molecule in which one or more of the fatty acids contain fewer than the maximum number of hydrogens attached to their carbons.
  15. What is a Phospholipid?
    A fat molecule in which one or more of the fatty acids contain fewer than the maximum number of hydrogens attached to their carbons.
  16. What is Isoprene?
    , or 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene, is a common organic compound with the formula CH2=C(CH3)CH=CH2. It is a colorless volatile liquid. Isoprene is produced by many plants.
  17. What is a Steroid?
    Steroids are a family of lipid molecules that includes cholesterol, steroid hormones, and bile salts. These amphipathic molecules (containing both hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions) are derived from two-carbon acetyl-CoA units,
  18. What are Peptide Bonds?
    The type of bond that links amino acids together in proteins through a dehydration reaction.
  19. What is a Dipeptide?
    is actually one molecule, which consists of 2 amino acids that are joined by a single peptide bond.
  20. What is a Polypeptide?
    A molecule consisting of many joined amino acids; not usually as complex as a protein.
  21. What is Primary Structure?
    The specific amino acid sequence of a protein.
  22. What is a Secondary Structure?
    In a protein, hydrogen-bonding interactions between —CO and —NH groups of the primary structure.
  23. What is a Tertiary Structure?
    The folded shape of a protein, produced by hydrophobic interactions with water, ionic and covalent bonding between side chains of different amino acids, and van der Waal's forces; may be changed by denaturation so that the protein becomes inactive.
  24. What is a Quarternary Structure?
    The structural level of a protein composed of more than one polypeptide chain, each of which has its own tertiary structure; the individual chains are called subunits.
  25. What is Denaturation?
    The loss of the native configuration of a protein or nucleic acid as a result of excessive heat, extremes of pH, chemical modification, or changes in solvent ionic strength or polarity that disrupt hydrophobic interactions; usually accompanied by loss of biological activity.