Biology Chapter 4
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What is Cell Theory?
All things come from cells.
What is a Plasma Membrane?
The membrane surrounding the cytoplasm of a cell; consists of a single phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins.
What is an Organelle?
Specialized part of a cell; literally, a small cytoplasmic organ.
What is a Prokaryotic Cell?
A bacterium; a cell lacking a membrane-bounded nucleus or membrane-bounded organelles.
What is a Nucleoid?
The area of a prokaryotic cell, usually near the center, that contains the genome in the form of DNA compacted with protein.
What is a Flagella?
The protein composing bacterial flagella, which allow a cell to move through an aqueous environment.
What is a Ribosome?
The molecular machine that carries out protein synthesis; the most complicated aggregation of proteins in a cell, also containing three different rRNA molecules.
What is Cytoplasm?
The material within a cell, excluding the nucleus; the protoplasm.
What is Cytosol?
fluid portion of the cytoplasm; it contains dissolved organic molecules and ions.
What is the Nuclear Envelope?
The bounding structure of the eukaryotic nucleus. Composed of two phospholipid bilayers with the outer one connected to the endoplasmic reticulum.
What is a Gene?
The basic unit of heredity; a sequence of DNA nucleotides on a chromosome that encodes a protein, tRNA, or rRNA molecule, or regulates the transcription of such a sequence
What are Chromosomes?
The vehicle by which hereditary information is physically transmitted from one generation to the next; in a bacterium, the chromosome consists of a single naked circle of DNA; in eukaryotes, each chromosome consists of a single linear DNA molecule and associated proteins.
The complex of DNA and proteins of which eukaryotic chromosomes are composed; chromatin is highly uncoiled and diffuse in interphase nuclei, condensing to form the visible chromosomes in prophase.
What is Mitochondria?
The organelle called the powerhouse of the cell. Consists of an outer membrane, an elaborate inner membrane that supports electron transport and chemiosmotic synthesis of ATP, and a soluble matrix containing Krebs cycle enzymes.
What's Aerobic Respiration?
The process that results in the complete oxidation of glucose using oxygen as the final electron acceptor. Oxygen acts as the final electron acceptor for an electron transport chain that produces a proton gradient for the chemiosmotic synthesis of ATP.
What is Chloroplast?
A cell-like organelle present in algae and plants that contains chlorophyll (and usually other pigments) and carries out photosynthesis.
What is Cytoskeleton?
A network of protein microfilaments and microtubules within the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell that maintains the shape of the cell, anchors its organelles, and is involved in animal cell motility.
What is Actin?
One of the two major proteins that make up vertebrate muscle; the other is myosin.
What are Microtubules?
In eukaryotic cells, a long, hollow protein cylinder, composed of the protein tubulin; these influence cell shape, move the chromosomes in cell division, and provide the functional internal structure of cilia and flagella.
What is MTOC?
What are Centrioles?
A cytoplasmic organelle located outside the nuclear membrane, identical in structure to a basal body; found in animal cells and in the flagellated cells of other groups; divides and organizes spindle fibers during mitosis and meiosis.
What is the Primary Cell Wall?
A thin, flexible and extensible layer of the cell wall composed of cellulose, pectin and hemicellulose.
What is the Secondary Cell Wall?
a structure found in many plant cells, located between the primary cell wall and the plasma membrane. The cell starts producing the secondary cell wall after the primary cell wall is complete and the cell has stopped expanding.
What is Cellulose?
The chief constituent of the cell wall in all green plants, some algae, and a few other organisms; an insoluble complex carbohydrate formed of microfibrils of glucose molecules.
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