Biology Chapter 6

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bendmar18
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Biology Chapter 6
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2014-09-23 16:39:54
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Biology Chapter 6
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  1. What is Matter?
    is anything made of atoms and molecules. Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. If you are new to the idea of mass, it is the amount of stuff in an object.
  2. What is Energy?
    Chemical energy is the potential of a chemicalsubstance to undergo a transformation through a chemical reaction or, to transform other chemical substances. Examples include batteries and light bulbs and cells etc.
  3. What is Thermodynamics?
    he study of transformations of energy, using heat as the most convenient form of measurement of energy.
  4. Open System vs. Closed System?
    A closed system maintains itself on a limited amount of resources that are entrenched in that particular system. Energy can be exchanged with other systems, but not any actual matter. Therefore, some of what goes on in the environment is considered a closed system, but not a whole lot. Open systems are much more common. In an open system, necessary resources are renewed and exchanged on a regular basis. Many ecosystems, for example, rely on the sun to constantly import energy into their basic cycles. Then there's a limited amount of nutrients to go around -- such as carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous -- and they're constantly cycled around. Some common cycles include the hydrological cycle, rock cycle and the carbon cycle.
  5. What is Heat?
    A measure of the random motion of molecules; the greater the heat, the greater the motion. Heat is one form of kinetic energy.
  6. What is Entropy?
    A measure of the randomness or disorder of a system; a measure of how much energy in a system has become so dispersed (usually as evenly distributed heat) that it is no longer available to do work.
  7. What is Metabolism?
    The sum of all chemical processes occurring within a living cell or organism.
  8. What is Anabolism?
    biosynthetic or constructive part of metabolism; those chemical reactions involved in biosynthesis.
  9. What is Catabolism?
    In a cell, those metabolic reactions that result in the breakdown of complex molecules into simpler compounds, often with the release of energy.
  10. What is Free Energy?
    Energy available to do work.
  11. What is Exergonic Reaction?
    Describes a chemical reaction in which the products contain less free energy than the reactants, so that free energy is released in the reaction.
  12. What is Endergonic Reaction?
    Describes a chemical reaction in which the products contain more energy than the reactants, so that free energy must be put into the reaction from an outside source to allow it to proceed.
  13. What is Dynamic Equilibrium?
    A system in a steady state since forward reaction and backward reaction occur at the same rate.
  14. What is Oxidation?
    Loss of an electron by an atom or molecule; in metabolism, often associated with a gain of oxygen or a loss of hydrogen.
  15. What is Redox reaction?
    reactions include all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation state changed; in general, redox reactions involve the transfer of electrons between species.
  16. What is an Enzyme?
    A protein that is capable of speeding up specific chemical reactions by lowering the required activation energy.
  17. What is a Substrate?
    The foundation to which an organism is attached. (2) A molecule on which an enzyme acts.
  18. What is an Enzyme Substrate Complex?
    The complex formed when an enzyme binds with its substrate. This complex often has an altered configuration compared with the nonbound enzyme.
  19. What is an active site?
    The complex formed when an enzyme binds with its substrate. This complex often has an altered configuration compared with the nonbound enzyme.
  20. What is Induced Fit?
    It suggests that the enzyme is not rigid and that it actually changes its shape slightly to fit the profile of the substrate. The enzyme will mould its self around the substrate as it does this it puts strain on the substrate molecule. The strain distorts a particular bond and lowers the activation energy needed to break the bond. It explains how molecules can affect enzyme activity and how theactivation energy is lowered.
  21. What is a Cofactor?
    One or more nonprotein components required by enzymes in order to function; many cofactors are metal ions, others are organic coenzymes.
  22. What is a Co-Enzyme?
    A nonprotein organic molecule such as NAD that plays an accessory role in enzyme-catalyzed processes, often by acting as a donor or acceptor of electrons.
  23. What is Metabolic Pathway?
    metabolic pathways are series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell. In each pathway, a principal chemical is modified by a series of chemical reactions. Enzymes catalyze these reactions, and often require dietary minerals, vitamins, and other cofactors in order to function properly
  24. What is Feedback Inhibition?
    Control mechanism whereby an increase in the concentration of some molecules inhibits the synthesis of that molecule.
  25. What is an Allosteric Site?
    A part of an enzyme, away from its active site, that serves as an on/off switch for the function of the enzyme.
  26. What is Competitive Inhibition?
    Is a form of enzyme inhibition where binding of the inhibitor to the active site on the enzyme prevents binding of the substrate and vice versa.[1][2]
  27. What is Non-Competitive Inhibition?
    is a type of enzyme inhibition where the inhibitor reduces the activity of the enzyme and binds equally well to the enzyme whether or not it has already bound the substrate
  28. What is Multi-Enzyme Complex?
    An assembly consisting of several enzymes catalyzing different steps in a sequence of reactions. Close proximity of these related enzymes speeds the overall process, making it more efficient.
  29. What are Biochemical pathways?
    A sequence of chemical reactions in which the product of one reaction becomes the substrate of the next reaction. The Krebs cycle is a biochemical pathway.

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