CHapter 14

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CHapter 14
2014-09-23 18:02:17
Chapter 14 AnaPhy
The Cardiovascular System
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  1. it consists of the heart and thousands of miles of blood vessels
    cardiovascular system
  2. it is a muscular pump that forces a blood through a system of vessels
  3. they transport blood to and from the trillions of cells that make up our bodies
  4. they assist in the chemical reactions inside the cells
  5. it provides the force to transport the bood
    cardiac muscle
  6. the heart beats ___ times per minute
  7. they prevent blood from backflowing through the blood vessels
  8. it is positioned obliquely between the lungs and the mediastinum
  9. The heart is approx. ___ long (___), ___ wide (___) and ___ thick (___)
    • 5 in
    • 12 cm
    • 3.5 in
    • 9 cm
    • 2.5 in
    • 6 cm
  10. the heart is enclosed in this loose fitting serous membrane
    pericardial sac or parietal pericardium
  11. layers of the pericardial sac
    • fibrous layer or fibrous pericardium
    • serous layer or serous pericardium
  12. it connects to the large blood vessels that enter and leave the heart, to the diaphragm muscle, and the inside of thorax
    fibrous layer or fibrous pericardium
  13. it anchors the heart to the mediastinum
    fibrous layer or fibrous pericardium
  14. it is the innermost layer of the pericadial sac
    serous layer or serous pericardium
  15. it is continuous with the outermost layer of the wall of the heart (epicardium) and with the large blood vessels of the heart
    serous layer or serous pericardium
  16. it is the outermost layer of the wall of the heart
    epicardium or visceral pericardium or serous pericardium of the heart
  17. it is the space between the epicardium of the heart and the serous pericardium of the pericardial sac
    pericardial cavity
  18. it reduces friction and erosion of tissue as the heart expands and contracts
    pericardial fluid
  19. it is an inflammation of the innermost layer if the pericardial sac
  20. it is the layer of cardiac muscle tissue
  21. this layer is arranged in interlacing bundles and is responsible in the contraction of the heart
  22. it is the innermost layer of the wall of the heart
  23. it acts as a lining for myocardium
  24. it covers the  valves of the heart and the chordae tendineae of the valves
  25. the upper chambers of the heart
    right and left atrium
  26. external appendage of the atrium
  27. it increases the volume of the atrium
  28. projecting muscles bundles that are contained in the lining of auricles
    musculi pectinati
  29. separates the 2 atria from each other
    internal interatrial septum
  30. the two lower chambers of the heart
    right and left ventricles
  31. it separates the two ventricles from one another
    internal interventricular septum
  32. these are the irregular ridges and folds of the myocardium of the ventricles
    trabeculae carneae
  33. it separates the atria from the ventricles
    coronary sulcus
  34. they contain varying amount of fat and the coronary blood vessels
  35. it receives blood from all parts of the body except the lungs
    right atrium
  36. it brings blood from the upper parts of the body, the head, the neck, and the arms
    superior vena cava or anterior vena cava
  37. it brings blood from the lower parts of the body, the legs and the abdomen
    inferior vena cava or posterior vena cava
  38. it drains blood from most of the vessels  that supply the walls of the heart with blood
    coronary sinus
  39. these arteries carry blood to each lung
    right and left pulmonary artery
  40. a major vessel that splits into the right and left pulmonary artery
    pulmonary trunk
  41. the left ventricle pumps the blood to the next great vessel, which is the ___
    ascending aorta
  42. supply the walls of the heart with oxygenated blood
    coronary arteries
  43. it sends arteries to the upper parts of the boy
    arch of aorta
  44. it receives only the blood coming from the lungs
    left atrium
  45. the two atrioventricular valves
    • tricuspid valve
    • bicuspid valve
  46. the valve between the right atrium and the right ventricle
  47. they grow out of the walls of the heart and is covered with endocardium
    flaps or cusps
  48. they connect the pointed ends of the flaps or cusps to the papillary muscles
    chordae tendineae
  49. small conical projections located on the inner surface of the ventricle
    papillary muscles
  50. the atrioventricular valve between the left ventricle and the left atium
    bicuspid or mitral valve
  51. the two arteries that leave the heart
    • ascending aorta
    • pulmonary trunk
  52. valves of the ascending aorta and the pulmonary trunk
    semilunar valves
  53. it is found in the opening where the pulmonary trunk exits the right ventricle
    pulmonary semilunar valve
  54. it is found in the opening where the ascending aorta leaves the left ventricle
    aortic semilunar valve
  55. it distributes oxygenated blood to all parts of the body
    ascending aorta
  56. generates and distributes electrical impulses over the hart to stimulate cardiac muscle fibers or cells to contract
    conduction system
  57. it initiates each cardiac cycle and sets the pace for the heart rate
    sinoatrial node or pacemaker
  58. it is located at the lower portion of the right atrium
    atrioventricular node
  59. it runs through the cardiac mass to the top of the interventricular septum
    atrioventricular bundle or bundle of His
  60. distributes the electrical charges over the medial surfaces of the ventricles
    bundle of His
  61. the actual contraction of the ventricles is stimulated by the ___
    Purkinje's fibers or conduction myofibers
  62. it is the term used to a phase of contraction
  63. the term for a phase of relaxation
  64. consist of the systole and diastole of both atria and systole and diastole of both ventricles
    cardiac cycle or complete heartbeat
  65. each cardiac cycle requires about ___
    0.8 second
  66. atria contract, ventricles relax, atrioventricular valves open, semilunar valves closed
    first 0.1 second
  67. atria are relaxing, ventricles contracting
    next 0.3 second
  68. the last 0.4 second of complete heartbeat is ___
    relaxation or quiescent period
  69. route includes oxygenated blood leaving the left ventricle through the aortic semilunar valve to the aorta and the deoxygenated blood returning to the right atrium
    systemic circulation
  70. refers to the fact that it is carrying blood to all organ of all the systems of the body
  71. subdivisions of systemic
    • coronary circulation
    • hepatic portal circulation
  72. supplies blood to the myocardium of thet
    coronary circulation
  73. route travels back and forth from the intestine of the digestive tract to the liver
    hepatic portal circulation
  74. route that goes from the right ventricle of the heart to the pulmonary semilunar valve to the pulmonary trunk that branches into right and left pulmonary arteries which go to the lungs
    pulmonary circulation
  75. route that supplies the brain
    cerebral circulation
  76. circulating route between the developing fetus and its mother
    fetal circulation
  77. layers of the walls of arteries and veins
    • tunica intima (endothelial)
    • tunica media (smooth)
    • tunica adventitia (fibrous)
  78. surrounds the lumen
  79. hollow core through which blood flows
  80. it is the junction of two or more blood vessels
  81. small arteries that deliver blood to capillaries
  82. one cell layer thick, microscopic vessels made of simple squamous epithelial cells
  83. connect arterioles with venules
  84. permit exchange of nutrients and oxygen and waste etc between blood and tissue cells
  85. small vessels that connect capillaries to veins
  86. collect blood from capillaries and drain it to veins
  87. capable of distention to adapt to variations of blood volume and blood pressure
  88. veins with thin walls
    vascular or venous sinuses