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study of articulations between bones (joints)
classifications of joints:
- fibrous joints
- cartilaginous joints
- synovial joints
- other structures
how are fibrous joints connected?
types of fibrous joints:
- suture (skull, cranium)
- syndemosis (splint bone attaches to cannon bone)
- gomphosis (tooth cavity)
how are cartilaginous joints connected?
attached by a cartilage structure
types of cartilaginous joints:
- synchondrosis (joints connected by hyaline cartilage)
- symphyes (pelvic)
another name for synovial joints:
- articulating joints
function of synovial joints:
what is a simple synovial joint?
at least 2 bones joining together
What is a composite synovial joint?
more than 2 bones joining together
What is a joint capsule?
fluid filled sac that helps with articulation
purpose of the synovial membrane or synovium:
provide components to the fluid
type of cells in synovial membrane:
What does synovial fluid do?
What causes the synovial fluid to have viscosity?
What is the function of articular cartilage?
protect the upper portion of the bone
What type of cells are in articular cartilage?
What type of joints do livestock have?
- ball & socket
What is the blood supply like in joints?
- has normal capillaries
What is the lymph function in joints?
- take to lymphatic system
What is the nerve function in joints?
- pain receptors
- properer reception (balance)
What is the bursa?
fluid-filled sac in the lining of the synovial membrane
What is the function of the bursa?
- acts as a cushion
- ex: knee
What type of joints are found in cats, dogs and humans but not livestock?
What is the synovial sheath?
surrounds the tendon with a synovial lining
Which joints are in the axial skeleton?
- temporomandibular joint (TMJ)
- atlanto-occipital joint
- atlantoaxial joint
- intervertebral disks
hinge joint (jaw)
hinge joint (neck)
the "no" joint
What is the only true pivot joint?
- allow for movement in any direction
- (getting up and stretching)
true ball and socket joint
- hinge and plane joint
- limited movement
true ball and socket joint (hip joint)
What state is the feltlock in when the animal is standing?
primary joint biomechanics:
moving toward the middle
moving away from the middle
moving joint back
turning wrists down
bringing wrists up
- bowed tendons
- wind puffs
- fistulous withers
- capped elbow
- capped hock