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  1. What is the body's primary focus during the first decade in women?
    On its own growth and development
  2. What does the body do when menstruation begin?
    Body begins to offer oval for reproduction
  3. How doe menstruation affect Women's energy and nutrient needs? (2)
    -blood and iron losses

    -constantly changing hormonal and metabolic activities
  4. Which hormone encourage the growth of the follicle (ovum surrounded by a layer of follicular cells that enlarges)
    hormone FSH (follicle stimulating hormone)
  5. Which hormone that sharply raises triggers the follicle to rupture to release the ovum?
    Hormone LH

    *this is called the follicular phase
  6. what occurs to the ruptured follicle due to the high levels of LH?
    It transforms into a corpus luteum
  7. What does the follical secrete?
  8. What does the corpus luteum secrete? (2)
    Estrogen and progesterone
  9. What does the estrogen stimulate the growth of?
    Uterine lining, endometrium
  10. What occurs in secretory phase?
    • endometrium starts to disintegrate without fertilization
    • *period
  11. What are prostaglandins?
    Produced by the uterus during the secretory phase
  12. What is the function of prostaglandins?
    Causes uterus to contract and release blood/nutrients store in the uterine wall
  13. What are prostaglandins derived from?
    Essential fatty acids
  14. What do prostaglandins cause to a women?
    Cramps and other side effects of mentruation
  15. If fertilization occurs) what does the ovum do?
    Secretes hormones that tell the corpus luteum to increase in size and to continue to produce estrogen/progesterone to maintain nutrient and blood vessel in endometrium
  16. Summary on women eating patterns before and after mesntruation
    • Women tend to eat more food (200-500 calories) per day for the first half month prior to menstruation than during the half month after mentruation
    • *corresponds with BMR
  17. Male reproduction) what does fluctuating levels of GnRH signal the release of? (2)
    FSH and LH
  18. Male reproduction) what do FSH and LH trigger production of?
  19. Male reproduction) where is sperm transported to for storage?
  20. Summary of PMS
    Is a cluster of physical, emotional, and psychological symptoms that some women experience prior to their menstrual cycle
  21. Does dysmenorrhea qualify as PMS?
  22. Summary of symptoms regarding dysmenorrhea
    Monthly bouts of lower abdominal cramps, bloating, back pain, headaches, food cravings, irritability
  23. What is dysmenorrhea related to?
    prostaglandin release near to and during menses
  24. Serotonin and PMS
    • Abnormal serotonin activity following ovulation may be responsible for the cause of PMS
    • *serotonin reuptake inhibitors reduce PMS symptoms
  25. Low intake of which 2 minerals have shows to increase risk of developing pMS?
    Vitamin D and calcium
  26. 4 ways to alleviate PMS symptoms
    -vitamin b-6


    -exercise and stress reduction

    -reducing caffeine intake
  27. Summary of good health and PMS
    Living a healthy general life will improve symptoms
  28. When were oral contraceptives first introduced?
  29. What did early oral contraceptives contain? (2)

  30. summary of side effects AND early oral contraceptives
    -increase of heart attack/stroke, elevated blood lipids, glucose intolerance, weight gain, folate/vitamin b6 deficiencies
  31. New oral pills contain...
    -lower doses of estrogen and testosterone
  32. What makes the pill effective?
    The extra estrogen that the pill gives the woman
  33. Which 4 populations should not use the pill?

    -older than 35

    -have CVD, HTN, DM

  34. What can eating black licorice and taking the pill cause? (2)
    Increase in blood pressure and fluid retention
  35. contraceptive injections) what's nickname for DMPA?
  36. contraceptive injections) what does depo-provera do?
    Suppresses ovulation
  37. contraceptive injections) how often is depo-provera given?
    Every 3 motnhs
  38. contraceptive injections) why is there a high discontinuation rate with depo-proverA?
    Causes weight gain, irregular periods, fatigue, headache, and abdominal pain
  39. 4 long term nutritional side effects of taking depo-provera?
    -decrease in bone density

    -decrease HDL cholesterol

    -increase LDL cholesterol

    -increase insulin levels
  40. contraceptive implants) example of one
  41. contraceptive implants) up to how long do they prevent conception?
    Up to 5 years
  42. contraceptive implants) for which population is it highly effective for and for which is it not?
    Normal and underweight effective and overweight not as effective
  43. contraceptive implants) what are the 3 notorious side effects for these?
    -erratic bleeding

    -weight gain

  44. Contraceptive patch) Summary on dosage AND patch
    It releases more estrogen and progesterone than the pill bc it is applied topically
  45. How does one use the patch?
    Placed on skin for 3 weeks and removed for one week
  46. Summary of side effects AND Patch
    Increased cholesterol and TG, increased HDL, breast soreness, headaches, abdominal pain, application side reactions, less effective for women, do not use if have heart disease, stroke, blood clots, ovarian, cervical cancer
  47. 3 other forms of contraception
    -vaginal ring


    -contraceptive pills that reduce menstrual cycles to 4 times a year
  48. Male contraceptives) what do oral contraceptives do?
    Suppress sperm production
  49. Maternal obesity increases the risk of... (5)
    -gestational diabetes

    -cesarean deliveries

    -childhood obesity

    -macrosomia in the infant

    -greater risk for postpartum weight retention
  50. Maternal obesity AND neural tube defects AND folate
    • Maternal obesity increase risk of neural tube defects
    • *does not matter if she consumes enough folate
  51. Children of obese women are at risk of.. (6)

    -low apgar scores

    -shoulder dystocia

    -childhood obesity

    -difficulty regulating blood sugar after delivery

    -perinatal mortality due to difficulty with delivery.
  52. 3 ways being underweight can adversely affect the outcome of a pregnancy
    -compromises fertility

    -premature delivery and intrauterine growth retardation increases

    -apgar scores are often low
  53. Summary on healthy diet AND eating heatlhy during pregnancy
    follow common sense man. Eat all the right foods
  54. what is folic acid required for? (2)
    cell division and DNA synthesis
  55. which is absorbed better? folic acid or folate?
    folic acid
  56. when is it important to amke sure you are taking folic acid or folate?
    important to take prior to conception
  57. which 2 populations should supplement on b12?
    -vegans and vegetarians
  58. is it easy or difficult to replenish low iron stores during pregnancy?
    it is difficult
  59. how should we consume iron rich foods to increase iron absoprtion?
    pair iron rich foods with vitmin c
  60. heme or non heme iron? which one of these is better absorned?

    *animal sources
  61. 4 things to avoid during pregnancy



    -excessive vitamin A
  62. what is the minimum spacing between births that is recommended?
    27 month span
  63. 5 sources that can disrupt fertility
    - undernutrition



    -effect of nutrients

    -male fertility issues
  64. In normal weight women, a weight loss of 10-15 %, decreases... (3)


  65. What does the weight loss of 10-15% result in... (3)
    • -amenorrhea
    • *no period for more than 3 months

    • -anovulatory cycles
    • *one month on next month off

    • -short or absent luteal phases
    • -
  66. What is shown to lead to hypothalamic amenorrhea?
    Deficits in energy and nutrients lead to hormonal changed that prevents ovulation
  67. How much weight gain can usually restore hypothalamic amenorrhea?
    Weight gain of 6-11 pounds
  68. What is the first treatment advised when amenorrhea is related to low weight ?
    Weight gain
  69. weight loss in men) 50% decrease in calories and 10-15% weight loss  leads to (3)
    -decrease sex drive

    -decrease viability and motility

    -sperm production ceased after certain weight loss is reached

    *8everything returned to normal when weight gain was experienced
  70. What is the primary effect of chronic undernutrition
    birth of small and frail infants who have high likelihood of death within first year of life
  71. Birth rates AND developed countries AND poverish countries
    Birth rates are lower in developed countries because of effective contraceptives as opposed to the high rates in developing countries
  72. What does acute undernutrition do to males and females? (2)
    -changes hormonal signals that regulate menstrual cycles in females

    -impairs sperm maturation in males
  73. Both low and high body fat are tied to ...
    Decreased fertility
  74. Fat cells produce the following hormones that influence production... (3)



    *low levels of body fat decrease these hormones
  75. Fertility is usually decreased in women with body mass indexes of ... (2)
    - less than 20

    -or more than 30 kg/m2
  76. In general, it takes women with ___ ____ ___ ___ stores longer to become pregnant
    High central body fat
  77. In men, obesity has the following consequences (4)
    -decreases testosterone

    -decreases sex hormone binding globulin

    -increases leptin

    -decreases sperm count
  78. In women, obesity has the following consequences (hormonal) (4)
    -increases estrogen

    -increases androgens

    -increases leptin

    -decreased SHGB

    **this leads to irregular menstrual cycles
  79. Consequences of Obesity leading to insulin resistance
    Insulin can stimulate testosterone production when then can suppress follicular growth leading to ovulatory dysfunction
  80. What should be the first therapy for obese women that are infertile
    Weight loss bc hormone therapy often does not work with presence of obesity
  81. SHGB AND weight loss in MEN
    Weight loss in men resulted in increase levels of SHBG
  82. Weight loss in women AND SHBG
    Weight loss in women increased SHBG
  83. Weight loss in women AND levels of estrogen and insulin
    They decreased with weight loss
  84. What do women that have undergone gastric by pass surgery see higher rate of when pregnant? (2)
    -gestational diabetes and pregnancy induced hypertension
  85. One significant finding of infants that were born from a women that had gastric by pass surgery
    Infants tend to weigh less
  86. DM) what 2 things can blood sugars uncontrolled cause?
    -malformation of the pelvis, CNS, heart

    -higher rates of miscarriages
  87. What is the leading cause of infertility?
  88. How is PCOS characterized by? (10)
    -insulin resistance

    -high blood insulin levels

    -high testosterone levels

    - obesity

    -polycystic ovaires

    -menstrual dysfunction




  89. 4 ways to manage PCOS
    • -increase insulin sensitivity
    • *primary goal

    • -lifestyle modifications
    • *lead a more healthy lifestyle

    -insulin sensitizing meds

    -may also use drugs to stimulate ovulation
  90. Women with PCOS, should exercise and weight loss so 4 things can happen
    -improve insulin senstivity

    -decrease blood lipids and insulin levels

    -decrease glucose

    -decrease testosterone levels
  91. 6 types of nutrition modifications PCOS women should do
    -omega 3 fatty acid

    -whole grains

    -fruits and vegetables

    -non-fat dairy

    -regular meals

    -low GI foods
  92. What is a classic symptom of anorexia?
  93. Anorexia) how is amenorrhea caused? (3)
    -Low levels of body fat

    -low dietary fat intake

    -excessive exercise
  94. Food binges and crash diets like bulimia consequences (3)
    -low FSH and LH levels

    -menstrual disturbances

  95. What is the female athlete triad?

    -disordered eating

  96. How is female athlete triad summon?
    High levels of exercise combined with negative caloric balance
  97. female athlete tirade) amenorrhea leads to (2)
    -decrease in LH

    -decreased in estrogen production
  98. treatment for female athlete triad (3)
    -increase energy

    -treat disordered eatingg

    • -restore bone mass
    • *may need to supplemetn
  99. 3 Ways male infertility can be affected
    -environmental toxins


    -nutritional status
  100. 4 nutritional issue that can contribute to male infertility
    -low zinc status

    • -antioxidants nutrients
    • *not enough

    • -vitamin D
    • *not enough

    -alcohol intake
  101. 6 other possible causes for male infertility
    -heavy metal exposure





    -steroid abuse
  102. What 4 dietary components affect estrogen, LH, and other hormones?
    -vegetarian diets

    -low fat intake

    -low iron

    -high intake of fiber, soy, caffeine, and alcohol
  103. What can isoflavones decrease levels of... (3)


    - gonadotropins
  104. What can a low fat intake cause in a woman?>
    Menstrual cycles to lengthen
  105. Disorders of metabolism) summary of what PKU is
    Causes increase in blood phenylalanine levels due to the lack of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase therefore essential amino acid phenylalanine cannot be converted to tyrosine
  106. What must mom do if she has PKU during pregnancy?
    She must keep diet low in phenylalanine or else risk of mental retardation, microcephaly, heart defects
  107. What is treatment for PKU
    follow low phenylalanine diet throughout life but particularly during conception and pregnancy
  108. Disorders of metabolism) what is celiac disease
    Sensitivity to the protein gliadin component of gluten that causes inflammatory reaction in intestines thus leads to poor absorption of nutrients if untreated
  109. Disorders of metabolism) if celiac disease is untreated in females... (5)

    -increase rates of miscarriage

    -fetal growth restriction

    -low birth weight deliveries

    -short duration of lactation
  110. Disorders of metabolism) if celiac disease is left untreated in males..(3)
    -changes in actions of androgens

    -delayed sexual maturation

Card Set:
2014-09-24 21:44:14
Life Nutrition

Nutrition through the lifecycle
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