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What is the body's primary focus during the first decade in women?
On its own growth and development
What does the body do when menstruation begin?
Body begins to offer oval for reproduction
How doe menstruation affect Women's energy and nutrient needs? (2)
-blood and iron losses
-constantly changing hormonal and metabolic activities
Which hormone encourage the growth of the follicle (ovum surrounded by a layer of follicular cells that enlarges)
hormone FSH (follicle stimulating hormone)
Which hormone that sharply raises triggers the follicle to rupture to release the ovum?
*this is called the follicular phase
what occurs to the ruptured follicle due to the high levels of LH?
It transforms into a corpus luteum
What does the follical secrete?
What does the corpus luteum secrete? (2)
Estrogen and progesterone
What does the estrogen stimulate the growth of?
Uterine lining, endometrium
What occurs in secretory phase?
- endometrium starts to disintegrate without fertilization
What are prostaglandins?
Produced by the uterus during the secretory phase
What is the function of prostaglandins?
Causes uterus to contract and release blood/nutrients store in the uterine wall
What are prostaglandins derived from?
Essential fatty acids
What do prostaglandins cause to a women?
Cramps and other side effects of mentruation
If fertilization occurs) what does the ovum do?
Secretes hormones that tell the corpus luteum to increase in size and to continue to produce estrogen/progesterone to maintain nutrient and blood vessel in endometrium
Summary on women eating patterns before and after mesntruation
- Women tend to eat more food (200-500 calories) per day for the first half month prior to menstruation than during the half month after mentruation
- *corresponds with BMR
Male reproduction) what does fluctuating levels of GnRH signal the release of? (2)
FSH and LH
Male reproduction) what do FSH and LH trigger production of?
Male reproduction) where is sperm transported to for storage?
Summary of PMS
Is a cluster of physical, emotional, and psychological symptoms that some women experience prior to their menstrual cycle
Does dysmenorrhea qualify as PMS?
Summary of symptoms regarding dysmenorrhea
Monthly bouts of lower abdominal cramps, bloating, back pain, headaches, food cravings, irritability
What is dysmenorrhea related to?
prostaglandin release near to and during menses
Serotonin and PMS
- Abnormal serotonin activity following ovulation may be responsible for the cause of PMS
- *serotonin reuptake inhibitors reduce PMS symptoms
Low intake of which 2 minerals have shows to increase risk of developing pMS?
Vitamin D and calcium
4 ways to alleviate PMS symptoms
-exercise and stress reduction
-reducing caffeine intake
Summary of good health and PMS
Living a healthy general life will improve symptoms
When were oral contraceptives first introduced?
What did early oral contraceptives contain? (2)
summary of side effects AND early oral contraceptives
-increase of heart attack/stroke, elevated blood lipids, glucose intolerance, weight gain, folate/vitamin b6 deficiencies
New oral pills contain...
-lower doses of estrogen and testosterone
What makes the pill effective?
The extra estrogen that the pill gives the woman
Which 4 populations should not use the pill?
-older than 35
-have CVD, HTN, DM
What can eating black licorice and taking the pill cause? (2)
Increase in blood pressure and fluid retention
contraceptive injections) what's nickname for DMPA?
contraceptive injections) what does depo-provera do?
contraceptive injections) how often is depo-provera given?
Every 3 motnhs
contraceptive injections) why is there a high discontinuation rate with depo-proverA?
Causes weight gain, irregular periods, fatigue, headache, and abdominal pain
4 long term nutritional side effects of taking depo-provera?
-decrease in bone density
-decrease HDL cholesterol
-increase LDL cholesterol
-increase insulin levels
contraceptive implants) example of one
contraceptive implants) up to how long do they prevent conception?
Up to 5 years
contraceptive implants) for which population is it highly effective for and for which is it not?
Normal and underweight effective and overweight not as effective
contraceptive implants) what are the 3 notorious side effects for these?
Contraceptive patch) Summary on dosage AND patch
It releases more estrogen and progesterone than the pill bc it is applied topically
How does one use the patch?
Placed on skin for 3 weeks and removed for one week
Summary of side effects AND Patch
Increased cholesterol and TG, increased HDL, breast soreness, headaches, abdominal pain, application side reactions, less effective for women, do not use if have heart disease, stroke, blood clots, ovarian, cervical cancer
3 other forms of contraception
-contraceptive pills that reduce menstrual cycles to 4 times a year
Male contraceptives) what do oral contraceptives do?
Suppress sperm production
Maternal obesity increases the risk of... (5)
-macrosomia in the infant
-greater risk for postpartum weight retention
Maternal obesity AND neural tube defects AND folate
- Maternal obesity increase risk of neural tube defects
- *does not matter if she consumes enough folate
Children of obese women are at risk of.. (6)
-low apgar scores
-difficulty regulating blood sugar after delivery
-perinatal mortality due to difficulty with delivery.
3 ways being underweight can adversely affect the outcome of a pregnancy
-premature delivery and intrauterine growth retardation increases
-apgar scores are often low
Summary on healthy diet AND eating heatlhy during pregnancy
follow common sense man. Eat all the right foods
what is folic acid required for? (2)
cell division and DNA synthesis
which is absorbed better? folic acid or folate?
when is it important to amke sure you are taking folic acid or folate?
important to take prior to conception
which 2 populations should supplement on b12?
-vegans and vegetarians
is it easy or difficult to replenish low iron stores during pregnancy?
it is difficult
how should we consume iron rich foods to increase iron absoprtion?
pair iron rich foods with vitmin c
heme or non heme iron? which one of these is better absorned?
4 things to avoid during pregnancy
-excessive vitamin A
what is the minimum spacing between births that is recommended?
27 month span
5 sources that can disrupt fertility
-effect of nutrients
-male fertility issues
In normal weight women, a weight loss of 10-15 %, decreases... (3)
What does the weight loss of 10-15% result in... (3)
- *no period for more than 3 months
- -anovulatory cycles
- *one month on next month off
- -short or absent luteal phases
What is shown to lead to hypothalamic amenorrhea?
Deficits in energy and nutrients lead to hormonal changed that prevents ovulation
How much weight gain can usually restore hypothalamic amenorrhea?
Weight gain of 6-11 pounds
What is the first treatment advised when amenorrhea is related to low weight ?
weight loss in men) 50% decrease in calories and 10-15% weight loss leads to (3)
-decrease sex drive
-decrease viability and motility
-sperm production ceased after certain weight loss is reached
*8everything returned to normal when weight gain was experienced
What is the primary effect of chronic undernutrition
birth of small and frail infants who have high likelihood of death within first year of life
Birth rates AND developed countries AND poverish countries
Birth rates are lower in developed countries because of effective contraceptives as opposed to the high rates in developing countries
What does acute undernutrition do to males and females? (2)
-changes hormonal signals that regulate menstrual cycles in females
-impairs sperm maturation in males
Both low and high body fat are tied to ...
Fat cells produce the following hormones that influence production... (3)
*low levels of body fat decrease these hormones
Fertility is usually decreased in women with body mass indexes of ... (2)
- less than 20
-or more than 30 kg/m2
In general, it takes women with ___ ____ ___ ___ stores longer to become pregnant
High central body fat
In men, obesity has the following consequences (4)
-decreases sex hormone binding globulin
-decreases sperm count
In women, obesity has the following consequences (hormonal) (4)
**this leads to irregular menstrual cycles
Consequences of Obesity leading to insulin resistance
Insulin can stimulate testosterone production when then can suppress follicular growth leading to ovulatory dysfunction
What should be the first therapy for obese women that are infertile
Weight loss bc hormone therapy often does not work with presence of obesity
SHGB AND weight loss in MEN
Weight loss in men resulted in increase levels of SHBG
Weight loss in women AND SHBG
Weight loss in women increased SHBG
Weight loss in women AND levels of estrogen and insulin
They decreased with weight loss
What do women that have undergone gastric by pass surgery see higher rate of when pregnant? (2)
-gestational diabetes and pregnancy induced hypertension
One significant finding of infants that were born from a women that had gastric by pass surgery
Infants tend to weigh less
DM) what 2 things can blood sugars uncontrolled cause?
-malformation of the pelvis, CNS, heart
-higher rates of miscarriages
What is the leading cause of infertility?
How is PCOS characterized by? (10)
-high blood insulin levels
-high testosterone levels
4 ways to manage PCOS
- -increase insulin sensitivity
- *primary goal
- -lifestyle modifications
- *lead a more healthy lifestyle
-insulin sensitizing meds
-may also use drugs to stimulate ovulation
Women with PCOS, should exercise and weight loss so 4 things can happen
-improve insulin senstivity
-decrease blood lipids and insulin levels
-decrease testosterone levels
6 types of nutrition modifications PCOS women should do
-omega 3 fatty acid
-fruits and vegetables
-low GI foods
What is a classic symptom of anorexia?
Anorexia) how is amenorrhea caused? (3)
-Low levels of body fat
-low dietary fat intake
Food binges and crash diets like bulimia consequences (3)
-low FSH and LH levels
What is the female athlete triad?
How is female athlete triad summon?
High levels of exercise combined with negative caloric balance
female athlete tirade) amenorrhea leads to (2)
-decrease in LH
-decreased in estrogen production
treatment for female athlete triad (3)
-treat disordered eatingg
- -restore bone mass
- *may need to supplemetn
3 Ways male infertility can be affected
4 nutritional issue that can contribute to male infertility
-low zinc status
- -antioxidants nutrients
- *not enough
6 other possible causes for male infertility
-heavy metal exposure
What 4 dietary components affect estrogen, LH, and other hormones?
-low fat intake
-high intake of fiber, soy, caffeine, and alcohol
What can isoflavones decrease levels of... (3)
What can a low fat intake cause in a woman?>
Menstrual cycles to lengthen
Disorders of metabolism) summary of what PKU is
Causes increase in blood phenylalanine levels due to the lack of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase therefore essential amino acid phenylalanine cannot be converted to tyrosine
What must mom do if she has PKU during pregnancy?
She must keep diet low in phenylalanine or else risk of mental retardation, microcephaly, heart defects
What is treatment for PKU
follow low phenylalanine diet throughout life but particularly during conception and pregnancy
Disorders of metabolism) what is celiac disease
Sensitivity to the protein gliadin component of gluten that causes inflammatory reaction in intestines thus leads to poor absorption of nutrients if untreated
Disorders of metabolism) if celiac disease is untreated in females... (5)
-increase rates of miscarriage
-fetal growth restriction
-low birth weight deliveries
-short duration of lactation
Disorders of metabolism) if celiac disease is left untreated in males..(3)
-changes in actions of androgens
-delayed sexual maturation