social psych exam1

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social psych exam1
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2014-09-23 21:22:15
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social psych
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  1. asch line of study
    • an example of normative social influence; when a┬áparticipant said the same wrong answer as everyone else, did the participant
    • privately believe in the answer? No. People conformed on about 1 out of 3 trials;
    • if at least one person did not conform in the group, then people conformed on
    • about 6% of trials.
  2. automatic processing
    lack control, happens quickly
  3. cognitive component
    beliefs or thoughts that make up the attitude (stereotyping)
  4. controlled processing
    effortful control, deliberate, have control over
  5. descriptive norms
    peoples perceptions of what actually happens in given situations, regardless of whether it's approved or disapproved by others (what is)
  6. discrimination
    • an unjustified negative or harmful action toward
    • the members of a group simply because of their membership in that group (ex.┬áRacial profiling when getting pulled over)
  7. evaluative stereotype
    valenced (ex: mean, dirty, nice, smart)
  8. explicit stereotyping
    those that we are aware of and state to others; conscious and deliberate
  9. fundamental attribution error
    when we explain peoples behavior we have the tendency to over estimate internal dispositional factors, and underestimate the role of situational factors
  10. hindsight bias
    people exaggerate how much they known an outcome will occur, after it happens
  11. illusory correlation
    people tend to over estimate the association between two things when both things are distinctive and unusual. we often stereotype minority groups because both they and the characteristics/behavior are distinctive, which we remember more and pay more attention to
  12. implicit attitudes
    those that are outside of our awareness
  13. implicit stereotyping
    outside of our awareness, automatic
  14. informational social influence
    the influence of others that leads us to conform because we see other people as a source of information to guide our behavior (the need to know what's right)
  15. ingroup bias
    prejudice against outside groups; major underlying motive is to maintain our self-esteem
  16. injunctive norms
    peoples perception of what behaviors are approved or disapproved (should/should nots)
  17. jigsaw classroom
    in groups where every student had an important role and could contribute to an end, shared goal, there were more positive race relations; example of inter group contact
  18. lack of fit model
    managerial stereotypes "fit" better with male stereotypes compare to female stereotypes; this lack of fit leads to penalties for successors and lower evaluations of women in male stereotyped fields
  19. language based discrimination
    how often you're treated unfairly because of the way you speak or write english
  20. leveling
    forgetting or omitting information that is inconsistent with our stereotypes
  21. minority influence
    the case where a minority of group members influence the behavior or beliefs of the majority
  22. normative social influence
    the influence of others that leads us to conform because we see other people as a source of information to guide our behavior; the need to be accepted
  23. outgroup homogeneity
    the belief that "they" are all alike
  24. penalties for success
    people tend to rate women as "cold" "selfish" "manipulative" and generatively unlikeable, even if no information about interpersonal qualities are given
  25. prejudice
    a hostile or negative attitude toward people in a distinguishable group, based solely on their membership in that group; an attitude with three components: affective (emotional) type of emotion linked with the attitude, behavioral: how people act on emotions and thoughts, and cognitive: beliefs and thoughts that make up the attitude
  26. realistic conflict theory
    limited resources causes conflict between groups, which causes prejudice
  27. semantic stereotypes
    non-valenced (ex: asians, computers and karate)
  28. sharpening
    emphasizing information that is consisted with our stereotypes
  29. shooter bias
    especially likely to pull the trigger when targets were black, whether they were holding a gun or not
  30. social categorization
    just putting people into groups causes changes in how we think about them
  31. social identity theory
    even without conflict, we show in group bias because we want to maintain high self esteem (evidence from minimal group paradigm) "group A" "group B"
  32. stereotype
    a generalization about a group of people in which identical characteristics are assigned to virtually all members of the group, regardless of actual variation among the members; types of stereotypes: evaluative, semantic, explicit, implicit
  33. stereotype threat
    the apprehension experienced by members of a group that their behavior might confirm a cultural stereotype
  34. subtyping
    when someone disconfirms a stereotype, we see them as "exceptions to the rule" and place them into a separate sub category
  35. castro essay study
    had students write about castro, if you like him or not, or write negative things about him even if you like him (situational factor: given choice or not, internal: whether they really like him or not) people reading their opinions of him went down
  36. 150 volts
    80% of participants continued giving the shocks even after the learner cried out in pain
  37. 450 volts
    63% of participants delivered (max)
  38. milgram experiment procedure
    assigned to be a teacher to someone else learning word pairs and instructed to shock learner whenever they make mistakes; learner makes many mistakes and experiment instructor encourages you to continue (if you went to 150 volts, you likely would go to the end of 450 volts)
  39. conformity
    changing ones behavior due to the influence of others (can be real or imagined)
  40. social norms
    the implicit or explicit rules for acceptable behaviors, values and beliefs
  41. social impact theory
    asch line study.. normative social influence.. strength: how important a group is to you (positive correlation) immediacy: how close a group is to you in place or time (positive correlation) numbers: how many people are in the group (positive to a point; then doesn't seem to affect)
  42. propoganda
    systematic attempt to manipulate thoughts and behavior of others; normative and social influence; conscious decision
  43. boomerang effect
    invoking descriptive norms may backfire; college says students drink 5 times a week, people who don't drink increase their drinking and people who drink 5 decrease
  44. authority
    we are socialized to obey legitimate authority figures; internalize social norm of obedience (obey even if authority isn't present)
  45. obedience
    social norm and universally recognized; without obedience there would be chaos
  46. autokinetic effect
    light is not moving we just perceive it this way
  47. sherif
    informational social influence studies; 1 study was alone, 2nd was with other people and 3rd was alone; same estimate as second session; public conformity lead to private acceptance. they actually believed it
  48. private acceptance
    conformity based on genuine belief that what they are doing is right
  49. conformity and importance
    more conformity when task was important (51% vs. 35% gave wrong answer confederates gave)
  50. mass psychogenic illness
    the occurrence in a group of people of similar physical symptoms with no known physical cause
  51. contagion
    emotions and behavior can spread rapidly amongst a crowd
  52. crisis situation
    not given much time to reflect on multiple conflicting norms
  53. ambiguity
    uncertainty or inexactness of meaning in language
  54. in group favoritism
    just being in a group even if randomly assigned can cause bias
  55. heuristics
    mental short cuts
  56. modern racism
    generally not ok to be racist anymore; people hide prejudice
  57. 2 factor model of stereotype
    women are wonderful, however they are weak and less competent; men are agentic, however they can be bad and not expected to be warm
  58. reverse correlation technique
    considered more untrustworthy and criminal (as rated by others) high implicit prejudice
  59. trust game
    the more someone had implicit positivity towards whites, the more money they would offer to the whites vs. african americans and vice versa
  60. implicit attitudes test
    created to test implicit thoughts on a subject, whether we stereotype subconsciously
  61. in groups
    the ground in which an individual identifies as a member
  62. out group
    any group with which an individual does not identify
  63. self-esteem
    peoples evaluation of their own self worth; the extent to which they view themselves as good, competent, and decent
  64. cohesive groups
    minority influence; need to be cohesive and consistent agree, not waver.. to convince
  65. shooter task
    quicker to shoot when black men were subjects; more likely to shoot when they were unarmed
  66. stereotype congruent
    we remember more; we process information in a bias manner
  67. intergroup contact
    having more contact with each other; more amounts of contact, more cooperation, creates friendships and affective ties
  68. identity salience
    the seeming importune of information that is the focus of peoples attention
  69. chronic stress
    stress directly from perceived discrimination
  70. cross generational effect
    mothers who perceived more language based discrimination generally had infants who were sick more often
  71. positive exemplars
    show things breaking stereotypes, but only work temporarily in breaking stereotypes; don't last
  72. robbers cave
    study that shows that the boys listed features more favorable to their in group and very unfavorable for the out group. study proves conflict between groups can trigger prejudice attitudes and discriminatory behavior
  73. situational factors
    things that can heavily influence our actions, our environment, and things out of our immediate control (rosa parks exp: people just didn't see the sign and sat in her seat unknowingly)
  74. dispositional factors
    personal, internal impact like an action or event that changed you or affected you
  75. escalation and self justification
    incremental shocks in milgrams experiment made it easier to keep going, and loss of personal responsibility "just following orders"
  76. minimal groups
    even arbitrary and virtually meaningless distinctions between groups like Group A and group B can trigger a tendency to favor ones own group at the expense of others; bias
  77. diagnostic condition
    genuine test of verbal abilities/intelligence: blacks performed worse on GRA whites performed better
  78. non diagnostic condition
    just looking at problem solving and learning; whites did worse, blacks did better than in threat group

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