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Central Dogma of Molecular Biology
Organels (all of them)
specialized structures w/in the cell that have characteristic shapes, & they perform specific functions in cellular growth, maintenance, & reproduction.
somatic cell devision - when a cell undergoes a nuclear division
2 Types of Compounds/Molecules
- 1. Lack Carbon
- 2. Acids & Bases
- 3. ie O2 & H2O
- 4. Generally formed by ionic bonds
- 1. Larger compounds
- 2. Larger molecules
- 3. Large carbon chains (they can be many shapes)
- 4. Macro molecules - ie Proteins, Carbohydrates (sugars - glucose, fructose, sucrose, maltose, galactose, monosacharides, disacharides, polysacharides)
- 5. Lipids (fatty acisds, phospholipids key to cell membrane -> phospholipids bilayer key to cell membrane)
- 6. Neucleic Acids (DNA, RNA -> TRNA, MRNA, RRNA)
Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid (DNA)
Genetic material for the database of information
Ribo Nucleic Acid (RNA)
Transfers the DNA message into a messenger wh/ then goes out into the cytoplasm and in the ribosome under the construction of RRNA builds the proteins
Three Different Types of RNA
Transfer RNA (TRNA)
type of RNA wh/ helps undergo the process of transcription. transcribes the message from the DNA to the RNA
- type of RNA
- takes the message from the TRNA brings it out into the cytoplasm into the ribosome
- type of RNA
- final componenet of the RNA that takes the message from the MRNA to put together the amino acids in the polypeptides and the peptide bonds that sequence amino acids and builds the protein
a group of cells that usually have a common origin in an embryo and function together to carry out specialized activities.
4 Types of Tissue
- 1. Epithelial
- 2. Connective
- 3. Nervous
- 4. Muscle
connective tissue composition
- two basic elements
- 1. extracellular matrix
- 2. cells
- material located between its widely spaced cells. consists of:
- 1. protein fibers
- 2. ground substance
extracellular fibers found in the extracellular matrix...
secreted by the connective tissue cells and account for many of the functional properties of the tissue in addition to controlling the surrounding watery enviroment via specific proteoglycan molecules.
- may be fluid, semifluid, gelatinous, or calcified.
- supports cells, binds them together, stores water, and provides a medium for exchange of substances between the blood and cells.
- plays an active role in how tissues develop, migrate, proliferate, and change shape, and in how they carry out their metabolic functions.
types of connective tissue cells
- 1. fibroblasts
- 2. macrophages
- 3. plasma
- 4. mast
- "to bud or sprout"
- each major type of CT contains an immature class of cells ending in -blasts.
- 1. large
- 2. flat
- 3. w/ branching processes
- present in all CT, secrettin the fibers & certain components of the ground substance of the extracullular matrix.
a type of white blood cell - engulf bacteria and cellular debris by phagocytosis
small cells that develop from a type of white blood cell called a B lymphocyte. plasma cells secrete antibodies, proteins that attack or neutralize foreign substances in the body. (most are found in CT, especially in the gastrointestinal & respiratory tracts. also abundant in salivary glands, lymph nodes, spleen & red bone marrow.)
leukocytes (white blood cells)
not found in significant numbers in normal CT. however, in response to certain conditions they migrate from blood into connective tissue. for example, neutroplils gather at sites of infection, and eosinophils migrate to sites of parasitic and ALERGIC RESPONSES.
produce histamine, a chemical that dilates small blood vessels as part of the inflammatory response, the body's reaction to injury or infection.
what is the ground substance made of?
fluid, gel & solid
types of fibers
- 1. collagen
- 2. elastin
- 3. reticular
- elastin : thin - weakest
- collagen : thicker - strong
- reticular : thickest - strongest
classification of connective tissue
- 1. embryonic CT (not much mention in class or Flaherty study guide)
- 2. mature CT
mature CT types
- 1. loose CT
- 2. dense CT
- 3. cartilage
- 4. bone tissue
- 5. liqued connective tissue (blood & lymph)
- more cells & less fibers -> weaker
- areolar, adipose, recticular
- more fibers & less cells -> stronger
- regular, irregular, elastic
- cartilage, bone
- 1. hyaline - ends of long bones, anterior ends of ribs, parts of larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchial tubes, embryonic & fetal skeleton
- 2. fibrocartilage - pubic symphysis (where hip bones join anteriorly), intervertebral disks, menisci (cartilage pads) of knees, portions of tendons that insert into cartilage
- 3. elastic - lid on top of larynx (epiglottis), part of external ear (auricle), auditory (eustachian) tubes
- compact - haversian system
- spongy - no osteons has traborulae
- liquid matrix = plasma
- wbc rbc = cells
- 1. covers body surfaces
- 2. lines hollow organs, body cavities, and ducts
- 3. forms glands
- (allows body to interact with both its internal and exteranl enviroments)
Types of Layers of Epithelial Cells (classification)
- a. simple
- b. stratified
- c. pseudostratified
Types of Shapes of Epithelial Cells (classification)
- a. squamous
- b. cubodial
- c. columnar
- d. transitional
Glandular Epithelial Cells
- provide secretions generated by secretory cells.
- 1. endocrine "ductless"
- 2. exocrine "use ducts"
- a. holocrine
- b. merocrine
- c. apocrine
- packed closely together. located in continuous sheets. end at a epical surface (1st part of a lumen). bordered by a basement membrane.
- liver uses pancreatic duct & then into the duodenum
- produce hormones that go into general blood circulation that are delivered to various far reaching areas of the body.
- pituitary can stimulate other glands throughout the body.
- pancreas islets of langerhans produce insulan & glucagon
- "use ducts"
- found near where secretion needs to go into the ducts.
- trachea, esophogus you will find goblet cells to facilitate passage of air and food. skin sweat & oil. thyroid. pancreas enzymes. ear wax.
- BOTH - liver uses pancreatic duct & then into the duodenum
- Unicellular: goblet cells
- Multicellular: use 2 or more cells to provide their secretions.
suicidal - explode ie sebaceous gland of the skin
secretions are synthesized on ribosomes attached to rough ER; processed, sorted, and packaged by the Golgi complex; and released from the cell in secretory vesicles via exocytosis. ie salavary glands, pancreas
accumulate their secretory product at the apical surface of the secreting cell. then that portion of the cell pinches off by exocytosis from the rest of the cell to release the secretion. the cell repairs itself to repeat the process. sweat glands.
simple cell layer
1 layer of cells
stratified cell layer
2 or more layer of cells
pseudostratified cell layer
- columnar epithelium
- (shaped like funky stained glass)
are thin, which allows for the rapid passage of substances through them.
as tall as they are wideand are shaped like cubes or hexagons. they may have microvilli at their apical surface and function in either secretion or absorption.
much taller than they are wide, like columns, and protect underlying tissues. Their apical surfaces may have cilia or microvilli, ad they often are specialized for secretion and absorption.
chage shape, from squamous to cuboidal and back, as organs such as the urinary bladder stretch (distend) to a larger size and then collapse to a smaller size.
connective tissue (CT)
- protects & supports the body & it's organs.
- 1. binds organs together
- 2. stores energy
- 3. provides immunity
- specialized cells for contracting & generation of force & in the process generates heat to warm the body.
- 1. skeletal -> voluntary
- 2. cardiac -> involuntary - autonomic nervous system
- 3. smooth -> " " " " " " " " " "
nervous tissue (book)
detects changes in variety of conditions inside & outside the body and responds by generating electrical signals called nerve action potentials (nerve implulses) that activate muscular contractions and glandular secretions.
- neurons - communication cells - nonmotogenic (do not go through mitosis - no reproduce)
- neuroglia - don't communicate but assist neurons
- ogliodedprocites - schwann cells, microgia, astrocytes, epedeyl cells, csf
how are most epithelial cells and some muscle and nerve cells joined together?
they are tightly joined into functional units
contact points between the plasma membranes of tissue cells
5 most important types of cell junctions
- 1. tight junctions
- 2. adherens junction
- 3. desmosomes
- 4. hemidesmosomes
- 5. gap junctions
- 1. neurons
- 2. neuroglia
- 3. synapses
do not conduct nerve impulses
connections between neurons
nervous tissue membranes
- mucous (lamina propria)
- serous (parietal layer - visceral layer)
high density of fibers (strength)
muscle tissue types
- voluntary vs involuntary
- actin & myosin