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2015-02-25 18:15:42

Chapter 19 Topics 1-2 Respiratory
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  1. The entire process of exchanging gasses between the atmosphere and body cells.
  2. This function of respiration is the exchange of air in and out of the lungs.
  3. This function of respiration is the exchange of gasses (O2 and CO2) between the lungs and blood.
    External Respiration
  4. This function of respiration is the transport of O2 from the lungs to the tissues, and transport of CO2 from the tissues to the lungs.
    Gas Transport
  5. This function of respiration is the exchange of gas between the blood and body tissues.
    Internal Respiration
  6. This function of respiration is oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria to make ATP.
    Cellular Respiration
  7. List, in correct order, the 5 general functions of the respiratory system.
    1) Ventilation 2) External Respiration 3) Gas Transport 4) Internal Respiration 5) Cellular Respiration
  8. Briefly describe why we breathe.
    In order to bring in O2 for cellular, and get rid of CO2 released from cellular respiration
  9. List the 4 main parts of the upper respiratory system.
    1) Nose 2) Nasal Cavity 3) Sinus 4) Pharynx
  10. A hollow space behind the nose; contains a septum and conchae.
    Nasal Cavity
  11. Divides the nasal cavity into left and right portions.
    Nasal Septum
  12. Divide the nasal cavity into superior, inferior, and middle meatuses; they function to support the mucous membranes that line the nasal cavity.
    Nasal Conchae
  13. Air-filled spaces that reduce the weight of the skull and serve as resonant chambers that affect the quality of the voice.
  14. A passageway to move food to the esophagus, move air into the larynx, and to aid in the production of sound.
  15. List the 5 main parts of the lower respiratory system.
    1) Larynx 2) Trachea 3) Bronchus 4) Bronchioles 5) Smallest Bronchioles
  16. An enlargement in the airway that moves air into the trachea, prevents foreign objects from entering the trachea, and houses vocal cords.
  17. An opening between the vocal cords through which air enters and leaves the lungs.
  18. A flap-like structure that covers the glottis when swallowing, to prevent food from entering the lungs.
  19. A flexible cylindrical tube that splits into left and right bronchi at the carina; its inner wall is lined with a mucous membrane containing goblet cells; it’s also called the windpipe.
  20. Branched airways leading from the trachea to the microscopic air sacs in the lungs.
    Bronchial Tree
  21. Differentiate between the "conducting portion" and the "respiratory portion."
    The conducting portion begins at nasal cavity, and extends to larger bronchioles. The respiratory portion begins with smaller bronchioles and ends with alveoli
  22. List the 3 main functions of the mucous membrane that lines the nasal cavity.
    1) Purify the air 2) Warm the air 3) Moisten the air
  23. What is the cellular structure of the respiratory mucosa?
    Ciliated columnar with mucous cells to clean, moisten, and warm the air
  24. What is the cellular structure of the pharynx?
    Stratified squamous to protect against abrasion
  25. What is the cellular structure at the trachea level?
    Ciliated columnar with mucous cells that cleans the bronchiole; cartilaginous C-rings to hold the trachea open
  26. What is the cellular structure at the bronchiole level?
    Cells becoming cuboidal as they change from columnar to squamous
  27. What is the cellular structure at the alveoli level?
    Simple squamous epithelium to allow for easy diffusion of gas
  28. Tiny air-filled sacs in which gas exchange with the blood occurs.
  29. A common passageway that is connected to multiple individual alveoli.
    Alveolar Duct
  30. Found at the end of the alveolar duct, it’s a common chamber connected to several individual alveoli.
    Alveolar Sac
  31. They prevent the trachea from collapsing, while being able to change shape to allow food to move thru the esophagus.
    Tracheal Cartilages (C-Rings)
  32. Occurs when the bronchial tubes increase their diameter, reducing resistance to airflow.
  33. Occurs when the bronchial tubes decrease their diameter, increasing resistance to flow.
  34. Describe the effect of the ANS on bronchi activity.
    Activation of Beta receptors by the SNS causes bronchiole dilation in support of fight or flight.
  35. List the air conducting passageways in the lower respiratory tract in correct order.
    Trachea > Lt & Rt Primary Bronchus > Secondary Bronchus > Tertiary Bronchus > Bronchioles (30 levels of division) > Terminal Bronchioles > Pulmonary Bronchioles
  36. What unique structure of the right pulmonary bronchus is of clinical importance and why?
    It has a larger diameter and descends at a steeper angle than the left; the effect is that inhaled items tend to end up in the left lung