Ch19T3-4

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Author:
aphy101
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283999
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Ch19T3-4
Updated:
2015-03-16 17:44:34
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profmwinston
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Chapter 19 Topics 3-4 Respiratory
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  1. This means inhalation.
    Inspiration
  2. This means exhalation.
    Expiration
  3. Located just inferior to the lungs and is composed of skeletal muscle fibers; it presses on the lungs, creating atmospheric pressure prior to inspiration, when it moves downward, the pressure decreases, and inspiration occurs.
    Diaphragm
  4. The attraction of certain molecules to each other; (ex: the attraction of water molecules to each other on the inner surfaces of the alveoli)
    Surface Tension
  5. A mixture of lipoproteins located in alveolar spaces that functions to reduce the alveoli’s tendency to collapse due to surface tension, and makes it easier for inspiratory efforts to inflate the alveoli.
    Surfactant
  6. These conduct impulses to muscle fibers in the diaphragm and intercostal muscles to contract them, beginning inpiration.
    Phrenic Nerves
  7. A force largely responsible for expiration, it’s when the elastic tissues of the lungs cause the lungs to return to their original shape following inspiration.
    Elastic Recoil
  8. As the volume in a container increases, the pressure decreases, and vice versa.
    Boyle’s Law
  9. What is the formula for Boyle’s Law?
    P=1/V (Where P=Pressure, V=Volume of thoracic cavity, 1=Constant)
  10. Why is inspiration considered an “active” process, and expiration considered a “passive” process?
    Inspiration requires the use of thoracic and diaphragmatic muscle to bring in air, thus, it’s active; Expiration uses elastic recoil of the lungs, thus, it’s passive
  11. Describe Boyle’s Law in regard to inspiration.
    As thoracic volume increases, the pressure decreases, thus, atmospheric air is forced into the lungs
  12. Describe Boyle’s Law in regard to expiration.
    As thoracic volume decreases, the pressure increases, thus, atmospheric air is forced out of the lungs
  13. Describe the major steps of inspiration (4 of them).
    1) Phrenic nerve from the medulla causes diaphragm and intercostal muscles to contract 2) The muscle contraction of the two increases the volume of the thoracic cavity 3) The increase in thoracic volume lowers the pressure 4) Atmospheric pressure (which is now greater than intra-alveolar pressure) is forced into the lungs
  14. Describe the major steps of expiration (3 of them).
    1) The diaphragm and intercostal muscles relax 2) Elastic recoil of the lungs tissue, and weight of the chest decrease the volume in the thoracic cavity 3) The reduced volume increases pressure, forcing air out of the lung
  15. Volume of air moved in our out of the lungs during respiratory cycle. (500mL)
    Tidal Volume (TV)
  16. Maximum volume of air that can be inhaled in addition to resting tidal volume. (3,000mL)
    Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV)
  17. Maximum volume of air that can be exhaled in addition to resting tidal volume. (1,100mL)
    Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV)
  18. Volume of air that remains in the lungs at all times. (1,200mL)
    Residual Volume (RV)
  19. Maximum Volume of air that can be inhaled following exhalation of resting tidal volume. (3,500mL)
    Inspiratory Capacity (IC) IC=TV+IRV
  20. Volume of air that remains in the lungs following exhalation of resting tidal volume. (2,300mL)
    Functional Residual Capacity (FRC) FRC=ERV+RV
  21. Maximum Volume of air that can be exhaled after taking the deepest breath possible. (4,600mL)
    Vital Capacity (VC) VC=TV+IRV+ERV
  22. Total volume of air that the lungs can hold. (5,800mL)
    Total Lung Capacity (TLC) TLC=VC+RV
  23. Amount of air that can be expelled when the subject takes the deepest possible inspiration and forcefully expires as completely and rapidly as possible.
    Forced Vital Capacity
  24. Measures the percentage of the vital capacity that is expired during 1 second of the FVC test (normally 75-85% of the vital capacity)
    Forced Expiratory Volume
  25. The space in airways, occupied by air that enters the respiratory tract but fails to reach the alveoli.
    Anatomic Dead Space
  26. When alveoli in some regions of the lungs do not function, due to poor blood flow in adjacent capillaries, it creates what?
    Alveolar Dead Space
  27. Alveolar and anatomic dead space combined equal what?
    Physiological Dead Space
  28. Define minute ventilation and provide a formula to determine it.
    The volume of air moved each minute: Vᴇ=ƒ•Vт (ƒ is normaly 12; Vт is normally 500)
  29. Define alveolar ventilation rate and provide a formula to determine it.
    The amount of air reaching the alveoli each minute: Vᴀ=ƒ•(Vт-Vᴅ) (ƒ is normally 12; Vт is normally 500; Vᴅ is normally 150)

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