biochem 002 a tour of the cell part 1 (microscopy ribosomes prokaryote eukaryote nucleus ER go

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biochem 002 a tour of the cell part 1 (microscopy ribosomes prokaryote eukaryote nucleus ER go
2014-10-02 21:34:16
biochem 002 tour cell part microscopy ribosomes prokaryote eukaryote nucleus ER golgi apparatus lysosome vacuole plasma membrane
biochem 002 a tour of the cell part 1 (microscopy, ribosomes, prokaryote, eukaryote, nucleus, ER, golgi apparatus, lysosome, vacuole, plasma membrane) #3
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  1. what are the basic features of all cells?
    • -plasma membrane
    • -semifluid substance called cytosol
    • -chromosomes (carry geneS)
    • -ribosomes (make proteins)
  2. prokaryotic cells are characterized by having:
    • -no nucleus
    • -DNA in an unbound region called the nucleoid
    • -no membrane-bound organelles
    • -cytoplasm bound by the plasma membrane
  3. eukaryotic cells are characterized by having:
    • -DNA in a nucleus that is bounded by a membranous nuclear envelope
    • -membrane-bound organelles
    • -cytoplasm in the region between the plasma membrane and nucleus
  4. what is the function of the nucleolus?
    rRNA synthesis
  5. what are the components of the endomembrane system?
    nuclear envelope, ER, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vacuoles, plasma membrane
  6. functions of smooth ER
    • -synthesizes lipids
    • -metabolizes carbohydrates
    • -detoxifies poison
    • -stores calcium
  7. functions of the rough ER
    • -has bound ribosomes, which secrete glycoproteins (proteins covalently bonded to carbohydrates)
    • -distributes transport vesicles
    • -is a membrane factory for the cell
  8. what are the functions of the golgi apparatus?
    to modify products of the ER, to manufacture certain macromolecules, and to sort and package materials into transport vesicles
  9. what is autophagy?
    using lysosomal enzymes to recycle the cell's own organelles and macromolecules
  10. what is a food vacuole?
    some types of cells can engulf another cell by phagocytosis;this forms a food vacuole. A lysosome fuses with the food vacuole to digest the molecules
  11. what are the three kinds of vacuoles?
    food vacuoles, contractile vacuoles, and central vacuoles
  12. what are contractile vacuoles?
    they are found in many freshwater protists, pump excess water out of cells
  13. what are central vacuoleS?
    found in many mature plants, hold organic compounds and water
  14. what are the four special features of mitochondria and chloroplasts?
    • 1. they are not part of the endomembrane system
    • 2. They have a double membrane
    • 3. They have proteins made by free ribosomes
    • 4. they contain their own DNA
  15. what is the internal structure of the mitochondria?
    they have a smooth outer membrane and an inner membrane folded into cristae. The inner membrane creates two compartments: intermembrane space and mitochondrial matrix.
  16. chloroplasts are a member of a family of organelles called _____
  17. chloroplast structure includes:
    thylakoids, membranous sacs, stacked to form granum

    stroma, the internal fluid
  18. what are peroxisomes?
    are specialized metabolic compartments bounded by a single membrane. They use oxygen to break down different types of molecules. Peroxisomes produce hydrogen peroxide and convert it to water
  19. what is the cytoskeleton?
    the cytoskeleton is a network of fibers extending throughout the cytoplasm. It organizes the cell's structure and activities, anchoring many organelles
  20. describe microtubules
    they are hollow rods about 25 nm in diameter and about 200 nm to 25 microns long. Their functions include:

    • Shaping the cell
    • Guiding movement of organelles
    • Separating chromosomes during cell division