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What role do theoretical questions play in sociological research?
a. They gather factual information and observations.
b. They seek to explain specific observations.
c. They make moral judgments about the collected facts.
d. They draw comparisons between societies.
Which of the following best reflects the definition of ethnography?
a. the study of ethnicity, race, and urban social relations in multicultural
b. questions that relate to the knowledge produced when sociologists link a current phenomenon to historical forces
c. the study of something with a historical basis (e.g., the Russian Revolution) and involving the analysis of documentary sources such as government statistics, newspapers, and so on, to explain a type of human behavior during a certain time in history
d. a way of studying people firsthand using participant observation or interviewing
Sociology can be considered a science because it does which of the following?
a. It uses systematic methods of empirical investigation to study a phenomenon.
b. It uses haphazard methods of theoretical thinking.
c. It involves the making of recommendations to policy makers.
d. It is conducted by people with advanced professional degrees wearing white lab coats.
What is microsociology?
a. the study of the internal dynamics of individual consciousness
b. the study of face-to-face interaction in everyday life
c. the study of children in social life
d. another name for the sociology of computing
The social contexts of our lives consist of more than just random assortments of actions or events; there are regularities in the ways we behave and in the relationships we have with one another. This patterned nature of social contexts is what sociologists refer to as which one of the following?
d. social structure
What is the sociological imagination?
a. It is the ability to “think ourselves away” from the familiar routines of our daily lives in order to look at them anew.
b. It is the study of the way private troubles aggregate into public issues.
c. It is the worldview of Karl Marx.
d. It is the application of Liberal and Socialist political values to social
The study of human groups and societies, giving particular emphasis to analysis of the industrialized world.
What is sociology?
a. Sociology is the study of individuals.
b. Sociology is the study of personality, cognition, emotion, and motivation.
c. Sociology is the study of human social life, groups, and societies.
d. Sociology is the study of the Social Reform movement.
Difficulties that are located in individual biographies and their immediate milieu, a seemingly private experience
Difficulties or problems that are linked to the institutional and historical possibilities of social structure
The application of imaginative thought to the asking and answering of sociological questions. Someone using the sociological imagination "thinks himself away" from the familiar routines of daily life.
The two-way process by which we shape our social world through our individual actions and by which we are reshaped by society.
According to Emile Durkheim, the aspects of social life that shape our actions as individuals. Durkheim believed that social facts could be studied scientifically.
According to Emile Durkehim, the social cohesion results from the various parts of a society functioning as an integrated whole
The conditioning influence on our behavior by the groups and societies of which we are members. Social constraint was regarded by Emile Durkheim as one of the distinctive properties of social facts.
A concept first brought into wide usage in sociology by Durkheim, referring to a situation in which social norms lose their hold over individual behavior.
Materialist Conception of History
The view developed by Marx, according to which material, or economic, factors have a prime role in determining historical change.
An economic system based on the private ownership of wealth, which is invested and reinvested in order to produce profit.
A theoretical approach in sociology developed by George Herbert Mead which emphasizes the role of symbols and language as core elements of all human interaction.
One item used to stand for or represent another - as in the case of a flag, which symbolizes a nation.
A theoretical perspective based on the notion that social events can best be explained in terms of the functions they perform - that is, the contributions they make to the continuity of a society.
The functions of a particular social activity that are known to and intend by the individuals involved in the activity.
Functional consequences that are not intended or recognized by the members of a social system in which they occur
A body of thought deriving its main elements from Karl Marx's ideas
The ability of individuals or the members of a group to achieve aims or further the interests they hold. It is a pervasive element in all human relationships.
Shared ideas or beliefs that serve to justify the interests of dominant groups. They are found in all societies in which there are systematic and ingrained inequalities between groups.
A sociological perspective that emphasizes the centrality of gender in analyzing the social world and particularly the experiences of women. There are many strands of feminist theory, but they all share the intention to explain gender inequalities in society and to work to overcome them.
Advocacy of the rights of women to be equal with men in all spheres of life. Feminism dates from the late eighteenth century in Europe, and feminist movements exist in most countries today.
The belief that society is no longer governed by history or progress. Postmodern society is highly pluralistic and diverse, with no "grad narrative" guiding its development.
The study of human behavior in contexts of face-to-face interaction
The study of large-scale groups, organizations, or social systems
The disciplined marshaling of empirical data, combined with theoretical data, combined with theoretical approaches and theories that illuminate or explain those data.
Questions that raise issues concerning matters of fact (rather than theoretical or moral issues)
Questions concerned with drawing comparisons between different human societies for the purposes of sociological theory or research
Questions that sociologists pose when looking at the origins and path of development of social institutions from the past to the present
Questions posed by sociologists when seeking to explain a particular range of observed events. The asking of theoretical questions is crucial to allowing us to generalize about he nature of social life.
An idea or a guess about a given state of affairs, put toward as a basis for empirical testing
Factual information used as a basis for reasoning, discussion, or calculation. Social science data often refer to individuals' responses to survey questions.
The firsthand study of people using participant observation or interviewing
A method of research widely used in sociology and anthropology, in which the researcher takes part in the activities of the group or community being studied. Also called fieldwork.
A method of sociological research in which questionnaires are administered to the population being studied
A trial run in survey research
Studying a proportion of individuals or cases from a larger population as representative of that population as a whole
A small proportion of a larger population
A sample from a larger population that is statistically typical of that population
Sampling method in which a sample is chosen so that every member of the population has the same probability of being included
A research method in which variables can be analyzed in a controlled an systematic way, either in an artificial situation constructed by the researcher or in naturally occurring settings
Research that compares one set of findings on one society with the same type of findings on other societies
Measures of Central Tendency
The ways of calculating averages
A measure of the degree of correlation between variables
A statistical measure of central tendency, or average, based on dividing a total by the number of individual cases
The number that appears most often in a given set of data. This can sometimes be a helpful way of portraying central tendency
The number that falls halfway in a range of numbers - a way of calculating central tendency that is sometimes more useful than calculating a mean
A way of calculating the spread of a group of figures
Degree of Dispersal
The range or distribution of a set of figures
Interviews with people about events they witnessed or experienced at some point earlier in their lives
The use of multiple research methods as a way of producing more reliable empirical data that are available from any single method
The process whereby the study investigator informs potential participants about the risks and benefits involved in the research study. Informed consent must be obtained before an individual participates in a study
Following a research study, the investigator will inform study participants about the true purpose of the study, and will reveal any deception that happened during the study