Sociology Chapter 1+2

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Sociology Chapter 1+2
2014-09-25 00:14:56

Professor Castro
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  1. What role do theoretical questions play in sociological research?

    a. They gather factual information and observations.

    b. They seek to explain specific observations.

    c. They make moral judgments about the collected facts.

    d. They draw comparisons between societies.
  2. Which of the following best reflects the definition of ethnography?

    a. the study of ethnicity, race, and urban social relations in multicultural

    b. questions that relate to the knowledge produced when sociologists link a current phenomenon to historical forces

    c. the study of something with a historical basis (e.g., the Russian Revolution) and involving the analysis of documentary sources such as government statistics, newspapers, and so on, to explain a type of human behavior during a certain time in history

    d. a way of studying people firsthand using participant observation or interviewing
  3. Sociology can be considered a science because it does which of the following?

    a. It uses systematic methods of empirical investigation to study a phenomenon.

    b. It uses haphazard methods of theoretical thinking.

    c. It involves the making of recommendations to policy makers.

    d. It is conducted by people with advanced professional degrees wearing white lab coats.
  4. What is microsociology?

    a. the study of the internal dynamics of individual consciousness

    b. the study of face-to-face interaction in everyday life

    c. the study of children in social life

    d. another name for the sociology of computing
  5. The social contexts of our lives consist of more than just random assortments of actions or events; there are regularities in the ways we behave and in the relationships we have with one another. This patterned nature of social contexts is what sociologists refer to as which one of the following?

    a. structuration

    b. functionalism

    c. macrosociology

    d. social structure
  6. What is the sociological imagination?

    a. It is the ability to “think ourselves away” from the familiar routines of our daily lives in order to look at them anew.

    b. It is the study of the way private troubles aggregate into public issues.

    c. It is the worldview of Karl Marx.

    d. It is the application of Liberal and Socialist political values to social
    scientific inquiry.
  7. Sociology
    The study of human groups and societies, giving particular emphasis to analysis of the industrialized world.
  8. What is sociology?

    a. Sociology is the study of individuals.

    b. Sociology is the study of personality, cognition, emotion, and motivation.

    c. Sociology is the study of human social life, groups, and societies.

    d. Sociology is the study of the Social Reform movement.
  9. Personal Troubles
    Difficulties that are located in individual biographies and their immediate milieu, a seemingly private experience
  10. Public Issues
    Difficulties or problems that are linked to the institutional and historical possibilities of social structure
  11. Sociological Imagination
    The application of imaginative thought to the asking and answering of sociological questions. Someone using the sociological imagination "thinks himself away" from the familiar routines of daily life.
  12. Structuration
    The two-way process by which we shape our social world through our individual actions and by which we are reshaped by society.
  13. Social Facts
    According to Emile Durkheim, the aspects of social life that shape our actions as individuals. Durkheim believed that social facts could be studied scientifically.
  14. Organic Solidarity
    According to Emile Durkehim, the social cohesion results from the various parts of a society functioning as an integrated whole
  15. Social Constraint
    The conditioning influence on our behavior by the groups and societies of which we are members. Social constraint was regarded by Emile Durkheim as one of the distinctive properties of social facts.
  16. Anomie
    A concept first brought into wide usage in sociology by Durkheim, referring to a situation in which social norms lose their hold over individual behavior.
  17. Materialist Conception of History
    The view developed by Marx, according to which material, or economic, factors have a prime role in determining historical change.
  18. Capitalism
    An economic system based on the private ownership of wealth, which is invested and reinvested in order to produce profit.
  19. Symbolic Interactionism
    A theoretical approach in sociology developed by George Herbert Mead which emphasizes the role of symbols and language as core elements of all human interaction.
  20. Symbol
    One item used to stand for or represent another - as in the case of a flag, which symbolizes a nation.
  21. Functionalism
    A theoretical perspective based on the notion that social events can best be explained in terms of the functions they perform - that is, the contributions they make to the continuity of a society.
  22. Manifest Functions
    The functions of a particular social activity that are known to and intend by the individuals involved in the activity.
  23. Latent Functions
    Functional consequences that are not intended or recognized by the members of a social system in which they occur
  24. Marxism
    A body of thought deriving its main elements from Karl Marx's ideas
  25. Power
    The ability of individuals or the members of a group to achieve aims or further the interests they hold. It is a pervasive element in all human relationships.
  26. Ideology
    Shared ideas or beliefs that serve to justify the interests of dominant groups. They are found in all societies in which there are systematic and ingrained inequalities between groups.
  27. Feminist Theory
    A sociological perspective that emphasizes the centrality of gender in analyzing the social world and particularly the experiences of women. There are many strands of feminist theory, but they all share the intention to explain gender inequalities in society and to work to overcome them.
  28. Feminism
    Advocacy of the rights of women to be equal with men in all spheres of life. Feminism dates from the late eighteenth century in Europe, and feminist movements exist in most countries today.
  29. Postmodernism
    The belief that society is no longer governed by history or progress. Postmodern society is highly pluralistic and diverse, with no "grad narrative" guiding its development.
  30. Microsociology
    The study of human behavior in contexts of face-to-face interaction
  31. Macrosociology
    The study of large-scale groups, organizations, or social systems
  32. Science
    The disciplined marshaling of empirical data, combined with theoretical data, combined with theoretical approaches and theories that illuminate or explain those data.
  33. Factual Questions
    Questions that raise issues concerning matters of fact (rather than theoretical or moral issues)
  34. Comparative Questions
    Questions concerned with drawing comparisons between different human societies for the purposes of sociological theory or research
  35. Developmental Questions
    Questions that sociologists pose when looking at the origins and path of development of social institutions from the past to the present
  36. Theoretical Questions
    Questions posed by sociologists when seeking to explain a particular range of observed events. The asking of theoretical questions is crucial to allowing us to generalize about he nature of social life.
  37. Hypothesis
    An idea or a guess about a given state of affairs, put toward as a basis for empirical testing
  38. Data
    Factual information used as a basis for reasoning, discussion, or calculation. Social science data often refer to individuals' responses to survey questions.
  39. Ethnography
    The firsthand study of people using participant observation or interviewing
  40. Participant Observation
    A method of research widely used in sociology and anthropology, in which the researcher takes part in the activities of the group or community being studied. Also called fieldwork.
  41. Survey
    A method of sociological research in which questionnaires are administered to the population being studied
  42. Pilot Study
    A trial run in survey research
  43. Sampling
    Studying a proportion of individuals or cases from a larger population as representative of that population as a whole
  44. Sample
    A small proportion of a larger population
  45. Representative Sample
    A sample from a larger population that is statistically typical of that population
  46. Random Sampling
    Sampling method in which a sample is chosen so that every member of the population has the same probability of being included
  47. Experiment
    A research method in which variables can be analyzed in a controlled an systematic way, either in an artificial situation constructed by the researcher or in naturally occurring settings
  48. Comparative Research
    Research that compares one set of findings on one society with the same type of findings on other societies
  49. Measures of Central Tendency
    The ways of calculating averages
  50. Correlation Coefficient
    A measure of the degree of correlation between variables
  51. Mean
    A statistical measure of central tendency, or average, based on dividing a total by the number of individual cases
  52. Mode
    The number that appears most often in a given set of data. This can sometimes be a helpful way of portraying central tendency
  53. Median
    The number that falls halfway in a range of numbers - a way of calculating central tendency that is sometimes more useful than calculating a mean
  54. Standard Deviation
    A way of calculating the spread of a group of figures
  55. Degree of Dispersal
    The range or distribution of a set of figures
  56. Oral History
    Interviews with people about events they witnessed or experienced at some point earlier in their lives
  57. Triangulation
    The use of multiple research methods as a way of producing more reliable empirical data that are available from any single method
  58. Informed Consent
    The process whereby the study investigator informs potential participants about the risks and benefits involved in the research study. Informed consent must be obtained before an individual participates in a study
  59. Debriefing
    Following a research study, the investigator will inform study participants about the true purpose of the study, and will reveal any deception that happened during the study