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In which 2 ways are fats and oils different?
-fats are solid at room temp whereas oils are not
-fats are usually from animal sources whereas oils come from plants
3 examples of foods high in fat from animal sources
5 examples of plant sources high in fat
What is invisible fat?
Not easily seen
*marbling of meat
What is visible fat?
*white striations in bacon
Are lipids water soluble?
No, just phospholipids
Which are the 3 edible lipids?
Which is the most common lipids?
What does the triglyceride consist of?
A glycerol molecule with 3 fatty acids attached to it
How do triglycerides differ from one another? (2)
-degree of saturation
Fatty acid structure) what is saturated?
There are no double bonds between carbons
Fatty acid structure) what is unsaturated?
One hydrogen missing between two carbons allows a double carbon bond
Fatty acid structure) monounsaturated
When one double bond is present
Fatty acid structure) what is polyunsaturated?
When 2 or more double bonds are present
Correlation between higher the saturation and room temp
The higher the saturation the more likely fat is liquid at room temp
Examples of foods that are high in saturated fat
Examples of food that are high in monounsaturated fat
Examples of foods that are high in polyunsaturated fat?
What is the only difference between phospholipids and triglycieride?
One fatty acid is replaced with compound containing phosphorus
What's special about having a phospholipids tail
Makes them water soluble
Examples of foods that contain phospholipids
How are phospholipids best known?
What are sterols
-large molecules that have interconnected rings of carbon atoms with variety of side chains attached
Examples of some sterols in our body
-cholesterol, bile, sex hormones, adrenal hormones, and vitamin D
Are sterols found in both plants and animals?
Examples of plant sterols
-soybeans, fruits, veggies, nuts, seeds, legumes, and other sources
6 functions that lipids contribute to
-heat transfer during food prep
-flavor of foods
How many amino acids are essential
How many amino acids exist?
5 things that proteins allow to occur during preparation
Functions of proteins in foods) what is hydration?
Ability of a protein to dissolve & attract water
Functions of proteins in foods) what roles does hydration have? (2)
-capability to form a gel
-aid in dough formation
Functions of proteins in foods) uses for hydration
Functions of proteins in foods) what is denaturation
protein structure is dirupted
Functions of proteins in foods) what is coagulation?
Clotting or precipitation of protein
Functions of proteins in foods) is denaturation and coagulation reversible?
Functions of proteins in foods) what are some uses of denaturation/coagulation? (2)
Functions of proteins in foods) what are enzymes?
Catalysts that speed up reactions
Functions of proteins in foods) how are enzyme reactions composed off?
-protein and non protein
Functions of proteins in foods) what is a coenzyme?
Usually a vitamin
Functions of proteins in foods) what is a cofactor?
Usually a mineral
What are examples of foods that are produced with help of enzymes
Functions of proteins in foods) what are examples of uses of enzymes (7)
-milk to curd in cheese production
-adding dark hurt to cocoa
-improve flour and dough
-improve filtration of beer
-increase fruit juice yields
-quality testing in foods
Functions of proteins in foods) what is buffering?
Have ability to resist extreme pH shifts and behave as buffers
Functions of proteins in foods) browning AND enzymes - what is milliard reaction?
reaction between a sugar and a protein resulting in the formatting of brown complexes
*toast turning brown
Functions of proteins in foods) browning AND enzymes- what is enzymatic browning
-reaction in which an enzyme acts on a phenolic compound in the presence of oxygen to produce brown colored products
What are 2 major vitamin groups
Which 4 vitamins are fat soluble
Which 2 vitamins are water soluble?
- b complex
What are the 2 mineral groups
-macro and micro
Foods high in vitamins) meats are good sources for (3)
Foods high in vitamins) dairy foods are good source for...
- *provide up to 80% of average daily intake
Foods high in vitamins) where is vitamin c only found in?
Foods high in vitamins) which food contains all fo the fat soluble?
Foods high in vitamins) where is b12 usually found
Foods of animal origin or fermented foods
Foods high in vitamins) what are the 2 major sources of sodium?
What is the composition of vitamins?
What is the composition of minerals
Minerals cannot be destroyed by ____ _____ or ____ unlike vitmains
What is enrichment?
Adding nutrients lost during production of food
What is fortification?
nutrient added that we not originally present
What are antioxidants?
Compound that inhibits oxidation which causes deterioriation
Which are the 4 important antioxidants
How are antioxidants used?
Neutralize free radicals
Which is the only mineral directly consumed?
What are 2 uses for sodium?
What are food additives?
Substance added to food so that it becomes a component or affects the characteristics of food
Which are the 3 most common type of food additives?
*there are over 3000
Where can one find the complete list of food additives
What 4 objectives must food additives meet?
-improve appeal of foods by improving flavor, smell, texture, color
-extend storage life
-protect nutrient value
Improve the appeal of foods) what are certified colors? (2)
-must be approved by FDa
Improve the appeal of foods) what are natural colors? (2)
- *come from natural sources such as foods
-no certification required
Improve the appeal of foods) color classified as 4 things
-opaque or cloudy
Improve the appeal of foods) 2 facts about flavor compounds
-can be derived from both nutrient and non nutrient compounds
-can be synthetic or natural
Improve the appeal of foods) how are textures used?
Add body and influence texture
Purpose of food additives ) extend storage life
Reducing rancidity of fats extends storage life
Purpose of food additives ) what are examples of maximize performance?
Emulsifiers and stabilizers/thickeners
Purpose of food additives ) maximize performance) what do emulsifiers do?
Prevent liquids from separating
Purpose of food additives ) maximize performance) what can stabilizers /thickners do?
Improve body and mouthfeel
Purpose of food additives ) what is meant by protect nutrient value?
Enrichment & fortification
What ortective effect do phytochemcials have?
Caffeine and intake
Moderate is fine but ODing is bad