3.1

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Author:
efrain12
ID:
284030
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3.1
Updated:
2014-09-24 19:39:31
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Foods
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Lipids and proteins and minerals
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  1. In which 2 ways are fats and oils different?
    -fats are solid at room temp whereas oils are not

    -fats are usually from animal sources whereas oils come from plants
  2. 3 examples of foods high in fat from animal sources
    -meats

    -poultry

    -dairy
  3. 5 examples of plant sources high in fat
    -nuts

    -seeds

    -avocado

    -olives

    -coconut
  4. What is invisible fat?
    Not easily seen

    *marbling of meat
  5. What is visible fat?
    Easily seen

    *white striations in bacon
  6. Are lipids water soluble?
    No, just phospholipids
  7. Which are the 3 edible lipids?
    -triglycerides

    -phospholipids

    -sterols
  8. Which is the most common lipids?
    triglycerides
  9. What does the triglyceride consist of?
    A glycerol molecule with 3 fatty acids attached to it
  10. How do triglycerides differ from one another? (2)
    -length

    -degree of saturation
  11. Fatty acid structure) what is saturated?
    There are no double bonds between carbons
  12. Fatty acid structure) what is unsaturated?
    One hydrogen missing between two carbons allows a double carbon bond
  13. Fatty acid structure) monounsaturated
    When one double bond is present
  14. Fatty acid structure) what is polyunsaturated?
    When 2 or more double bonds are present
  15. Correlation between higher the saturation and room temp
    The higher the saturation the more likely fat is liquid at room temp
  16. Examples of foods that are high in saturated fat
    -meats

    -dairy

    -milk

    -butter

    -cocunut

    -coconut oil

    -palm oil
  17. Examples of food that are high in monounsaturated fat
    -olives

    -olive oil

    -peanuts

    • -peanuts butter
    • -avocado
  18. Examples of foods that are high in polyunsaturated fat?
    -vegetable oils

    -fish
  19. What is the only difference between phospholipids and triglycieride?
    One fatty acid is replaced with compound containing phosphorus
  20. What's special about having a phospholipids tail
    Makes them water soluble
  21. Examples of foods that contain phospholipids
    -egg yolks

    -liver

    -soybeans

    -wheat germ

    -peanuts
  22. How are phospholipids best known?
    lecithin
  23. What are sterols
    -large molecules that have interconnected rings of carbon atoms with variety of side chains attached
  24. Examples of some sterols in our body
    -cholesterol, bile, sex hormones, adrenal hormones, and vitamin D
  25. Are sterols found in both plants and animals?
    yes
  26. Examples of plant sterols
    -soybeans, fruits, veggies, nuts, seeds, legumes, and other sources
  27. 6 functions that lipids contribute to
    -heat transfer during food prep

    -tenderness

    -mixing

    -texture

    -flavor of foods

    -increasing satiety
  28. How many amino acids are essential
    ?
    9
  29. How many amino acids exist?
    22
  30. 5 things that proteins allow to occur during preparation
    -hydration

    -denaturation/coagulation

    -enzymatic reactions

    -buffering

    -browning
  31. Functions of proteins in foods) what is hydration?
    Ability of a protein to dissolve & attract water
  32. Functions of proteins in foods) what roles does hydration have? (2)
    -capability to form a gel

    -aid in dough formation
  33. Functions of proteins in foods) uses for hydration
    -gels

    -binders

    -stabilizers

    -thickeners
  34. Functions of proteins in foods) what is denaturation
    protein structure is dirupted
  35. Functions of proteins in foods) what is coagulation?
    Clotting or precipitation of protein
  36. Functions of proteins in foods) is denaturation and coagulation reversible?
    no
  37. Functions of proteins in foods) what are some uses of denaturation/coagulation? (2)
    -foam formation

    -cheese production
  38. Functions of proteins in foods) what are enzymes?
    Catalysts that speed up reactions
  39. Functions of proteins in foods) how are enzyme reactions composed off?
    -protein and non protein
  40. Functions of proteins in foods) what is a coenzyme?
    Usually a vitamin
  41. Functions of proteins in foods) what is a cofactor?
    Usually a mineral
  42. What are examples of foods that are produced with help of enzymes
    -wines

    -cheese

    -corn syrup

    -yogurt

    -cottage cheese

    -baked goods

    -sausages

    -juices
  43. Functions of proteins in foods) what are examples of uses of enzymes (7)
    -milk to curd in cheese production

    -tenderizing meat

    -adding dark hurt to cocoa

    -improve flour and dough

    -improve filtration of beer

    -increase fruit juice yields

    -quality testing in foods
  44. Functions of proteins in foods) what is buffering?
    Have ability to resist extreme pH shifts and behave as buffers
  45. Functions of proteins in foods) browning AND enzymes - what is milliard reaction?
    reaction between a sugar and a protein resulting in the formatting of brown complexes

    *toast turning brown
  46. Functions of proteins in foods) browning AND enzymes- what is enzymatic browning
    -reaction in which an enzyme acts on a phenolic compound in the presence of oxygen to produce brown colored products
  47. What are 2 major vitamin groups
    -fat soluble

    -water solubleq
  48. Which 4 vitamins are fat soluble
    -a

    -d

    -e

    -k
  49. Which 2 vitamins are water soluble?
    - b complex

    -c
  50. What are the 2 mineral groups
    -macro and micro
  51. Foods high in vitamins) meats are good sources for (3)
    -b vitamins

    -iron

    -zinc
  52. Foods high in vitamins) dairy foods are good source for...
    • calcium
    • *provide up to 80% of average daily intake
  53. Foods high in vitamins) where is vitamin c only found in?
    plants
  54. Foods high in vitamins) which food contains all fo the fat soluble?
    Egg yolk
  55. Foods high in vitamins) where is b12 usually found
    Foods of animal origin or fermented foods
  56. Foods high in vitamins) what are the 2 major sources of sodium?
    -processed foods

    -saltshaker
  57. What is the composition of vitamins?
    Organic compounds
  58. What is the composition of minerals
    Inorganic elements
  59. Minerals cannot be destroyed by ____ _____ or ____ unlike vitmains
    -heat

    -lgiht

    -ocygen
  60. What is enrichment?
    Adding nutrients lost during production of food
  61. What is fortification?
    nutrient added that we not originally present
  62. What are antioxidants?
    Compound that inhibits oxidation which causes deterioriation
  63. Which are the 4 important antioxidants
    -a

    -c

    -e

    mineral selenium
  64. How are antioxidants used?
    Neutralize free radicals
  65. Which is the only mineral directly consumed?
    sodium
  66. What are 2 uses for sodium?
    -preservative

    -enhances flavor
  67. What are food additives?
    Substance added to food so that it becomes a component or affects the characteristics of food
  68. Which are the 3 most common type of food additives?
    -sugar

    -salt

    -corn syrup

    *there are over 3000
  69. Where can one find the complete list of food additives
    EAFUS
  70. What 4 objectives must food additives meet?
    -improve appeal of foods by improving flavor, smell, texture, color

    -extend storage life

    -maximize performance

    -protect nutrient value
  71. Improve the appeal of foods) what are certified colors? (2)
    -synthetic

    -must be approved by FDa
  72. Improve the appeal of foods) what are natural colors? (2)
    • -natural
    • *come from natural sources such as foods

    -no certification required
  73. Improve the appeal of foods) color classified as 4 things
    -shiny

    -glossy

    -opaque or cloudy

    -translucent
  74. Improve the appeal of foods) 2 facts about flavor compounds
    -can be derived from both nutrient and non nutrient compounds

    -can be synthetic or natural
  75. Improve the appeal of foods) how are textures used?
    Add body and influence texture
  76. Purpose of food additives ) extend storage life
    Reducing rancidity of fats extends storage life
  77. Purpose of food additives ) what are examples of maximize performance?
    Emulsifiers and stabilizers/thickeners
  78. Purpose of food additives ) maximize performance) what do emulsifiers do?
    Prevent liquids from separating
  79. Purpose of food additives ) maximize performance) what can stabilizers /thickners do?
    Improve body and mouthfeel
  80. Purpose of food additives ) what is meant by protect nutrient value?
    Enrichment & fortification
  81. What ortective effect do phytochemcials have?
    Against cancer
  82. Caffeine and intake
    Moderate is fine but ODing is bad

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