Lab Practical 2

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Lab Practical 2
2014-10-23 02:43:00
Lab StudyGuide Practical2

Biology 103B
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  1. neutrophil
    • function: to phagocytize bacteria
    • cell relative number and percentage: 3000-7000 micrometer of blood and 50-70%
  2. lymphocyte
    • function: mount immune response by direct cell attack or via antibodies
    • cell relative and percentage: 1500-3000 micrometer of blood and  25% or more
  3. monocyte
    • function: phagocytosis: develop into macrophages in tissues
    • cell relative number and percentage: 100-700 micrometer in blood and 3-8%
  4. eosinophil
    • function: kill parasitic worms; complex role in allergy and asthma
    • cell relative number and percentage: 100-400 micrometer of blood and 2-4%
  5. basophil
    • function: release histamine and other mediators of inflammation; contain heparin; an anticoagulant
    • cell relative and percentage: 20-50 micrometer of blood and less than 1%
  6. diapenesis
    passage of white blood cells through intact vessel walls into tissue
  7. leukocytosis
    • an abnormally high WBC count
    • cause: bacterial or viral infectioon, metabolic disease, hemorrhage, or poisoning by drugs or chemicals
  8. leukopenia
    • a decrease in the white cell number below 4000/mm3,
    • cause: typhoid fever, measles, infectious hepatitis or cirrhosis, tuberculosis, or excessive antibiotic or X-ray therapy
  9. leukemia
    • cancer of the body's blood-forming tissues, including the bone marrow and the lymphatic system
    • cause: uncontrolled proliferation of abnormal WBCs accompanied by a reduction in the number of RBCs and platelets
  10. polycythemia
    • an increase in the number of RBCs,
    • cause: may result from bone marrow cancer or from living at high altitudes where less oxygen is available
  11. anemia
    • reduced oxygen-carrying ability of blood resulting from too few erythrocytes or abnormal hemoglobin
    • cause: a decrease in RBC number or size or a decreased hemoglobin content of the RBCs
  12. differential white blood cell count
    use in a physical examination and in diagnosing illness
  13. general locations of clusters of lymph nodes
    large clusters of lymph nodes occur near the body surface in the inguinal, axillary, and cervical regions, places where the lymphatic collecting vessels converge to form trunks
  14. general locations of clusters of lymphatic organs
    • 1. tonsils (in pharyngeal region)
    • 2. thymus (in throax; most active during youth)
    • 3. spleen (curves around left side of stomach)
    • 4. peyer's patches (in intestine)
    • 5. appendix
  15. general locations of MALT
    • Walls of the bronchi (Respiratory)
    • Walls of pharnyx (tonsils)
    • Walls of small intestines (Peyer's Patches)
    • Wall of the colon (aggregate lymphoid nodules)
    • Walls of appendix
    • Walls of vagina
  16. Know where lymph is returned to the circulatory system for each region of the body
  17. Macrophages
    • Location: lymph nodes, bone marrow and spleen
    • Role: destroy bacteria, cancer cells, and other foreign matter in the lymphatic stream
  18. B lymphocytes
    • Location: bone marrow
    • Role: recognize foreign substances (antigen) and attach themselves to them, effective against extracellular antigens via use of secreted antibodies
  19. T lymphocytes
    • Location: thymus
    • Role:  recognize, respond to and remember antigens.contribute to the immune defenses in two major ways. Some direct and regulate the immune responses. When stimulated by the antigenic material presented by the macrophages, the T cells make lymphokines that signal other cells. Other T lymphocytes are able to destroy targeted cells on direct contact.
  20. Know the binding sites on IgG antibodies and their roles in precipitation, opsonization, and complement activation
    • monomers.
    • protect bacteria, viruses, and toxins circulating in blood and lymph, cross the placenta, confer passive immunity from the mother to the fetus acts to neutralize which cause to opsonize and precipitate. Also main antibody of both secondary and late primary responses, so readily fix and activate complement.
  21. pulmonary ventilation
    the tidelike movement of air into and out of the lungs so that the gases in the alveoli are continuously changed and refreshed
  22. external respiration
    the gas exchange between the blood and the air-filled chambers of the lungs (oxygen loading/carbon dioxide unloading)
  23. transport of respiratory gases
    the transport of respiratory gases between the lungs and tissue cells of the body accomplished by the cardiovascular system, using blood as the transport vehicle
  24. internal respiration
    exchange of gases between systemic blood and tissue cells (oxygen unloading and carbon dioxide loading)
  25. conducting zone
    Nose, nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and terminal bronchioles.Their function is to filter, warm, and moisten air and conduct it to the lungs.
  26. respiratory zone
    Includes the respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, and alveolar. These structures are the main site of gas exchange between air and blood.
  27. tidal volume (TV)
    amount of air inhaled and exhaled with breath during resting conditions (500 ml)

    TV = x/2
  28. inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)
    amount of air that can be forcefully inhaled after a normal tidal volume inhalation (3100 ml)

    IRV = corrected average inspiratory capacity - corrected average tidal volume
  29. expiratory reserve volume (ERV)
    amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled after a normal tidal volume exhalation (3100 ml)

    ERV = corrected average expiratory capacity - corrected average tidal volume
  30. vital capacity (VC)
    maximum amount of air that can be exhaled after a maximal inspiration (4800 ml)

    VC = TV + IRV + ERV
  31. spirometer
    an apparatus for measuring the volume of air inspired and expired by the lungs, and is used to diagnose asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and other
  32. MRV
    = TV x respiration/min = _________ ml/min
  33. external nares
    to let enter air through nasal cavity
  34. vestibule
    to communicate anteriorly with the environment, and it is lined with skin containing sweat and sebaceous glands, as well as, hairs. The lining epithelium is stratified squamous.
  35. superior, middle, and inferior conchae
    to increase the air turbulence and lined with pseudostratified ciliated epithelium
  36. frontal sinuses and sphenoid sinuse
    to lighten the skull, manufacture mucous and produce a resonance to amplify our vocalizations.
  37. uvula
    to block the passage into the nasal cavity when swallowing and to play a role in articulation – assisting with the speech
  38. lingual tonsils
    to assist the immune system in the production of antibodies in response to invading bacteria or viruses and lined with stratified squamous epithelium
  39. palatine tonsils
    to assist in defending the body from respiratory infections and lined with stratified squamous epithelium.
  40. pharyngeal tonsils
    to produce an immune response to pathogens in the upper respiratory tract and lined with pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
  41. epiglotiss
    to form a lid over the larynx when we swallow
  42. true and false vocal cords
    to vibrate with expelled air for speech
  43. hyoid bone
    to serve as an anchoring structure for the tongue.
  44. thyroid cartilage
    to house the vocal folds, commonly called the vocal cords
  45. cricoid cartilage
    to anchor the muscles, ligaments, and cartilages that are attached to it in order to facilitate the opening and closing of epiglottis.
  46. arytenoid cartilage
    to keep the airway through the larynx open allowing air to pass over the vocal cords
  47. glottis
    to produce a "buzzing" quality to the speech
  48. esophagus
    to carry food, liquids, and saliva from the mouth to the stomach
  49. trachea
    to serve as air passageway; cleans, warms, and moistens incoming air
  50. soft and hard palate
    to separate the oral cavity from the nasal cavity