Chapter 15

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Chapter 15
2014-09-25 17:00:21
Chapter 15 AnaPhy
The Lymphatic System
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  1. it transports a fluid called lymph through special vessels called lymphatic capillaries and lymphatics
    lymphatic system
  2. essential to helping us control and destroy a large number of microorganisms that can invade our bodies
    lymphatic system
  3. the lymphatic system consists of the ___
    • lymp
    • lymphatic vessels
    • lymphatic nodes
    • tonsils
    • spleen
    • thymus gland
    • Peyer's patches
  4. it  drains from tissue spaces protein-containing fluid that escapes from blood capillaries
    lymphatic system
  5. plasma that moves out of the capillaries and into spaces between tissue cells
    interstitial fluid
  6. occurs when the interstitial fluid is not drained from the tissue spaces
    edema or swelling
  7. drains the interstitial fluid in the tissue spaces
    lymphatic capillaries
  8. once the interstitial fluid enters a lymphatic capillary, it is called ___
  9. lymphatic vessels in the villi that absorbs fats and transport them from the digestive tract to the blood
  10. lymph in the lacteals look milky because of the fat content and is called ___
  11. they originate as blind-end tubes that begin in spaces between cells in most parts of the body
    lymphatic vessels
  12. tubes which are closed at one end and occur singly or in extensive plexuses
    lymphatic capillaries
  13. forms when lymphatic capillaries unite to form larger lymph vessels
  14. they resemble veins in structure but have thinner walls and more valves
  15. lymphatics of the skin travel in ___ and generally follow the routes of ___
    • loose subcutaneous connective tissue
    • veins
  16. lymphatics of the viscera generally follow the routes of ___
  17. two main channels where all the lymphatics of the body converge
    • thoracic duct or left lymphatic duct
    • right lymphatic duct
  18. they are oval to bean-shaped structures found along the length of lymphatics
    lymph nodes
  19. lymph nodes are also known as
    lymphatic glands
  20. length of lymph nodes
    1 to 25 mm or 0.04 to 1 inch
  21. the three regions of aggregations of nodes in the body
    • groin
    • armpits
    • neck
  22. depression in the lymph node
  23. it is where efferent lymphatic vessels leave and a nodal artery enters and a nodal vein leaves
  24. capsular extensions that cover the lymph node
  25. these are lymphatic vessels that enter the lymphatic node at various sites
    afferent lymphatic vessels
  26. cells that make up dense aggregations of tissue
    cortical or lymphatic nodules
  27. these are spaces between groups of lymphatic tissue
    lymphatic sinuses
  28. it is the framework of the lymph node
  29. they remove dead microorganisms and foreign substances by phagocytosis
  30. united efferent vessels
    lymphatic trunks
  31. results when the lymphatics become obstructed by blockage, developing interstitial fluid in tissue spaces
    edema or swelling
  32. lymphatic trunks of the body
    • lumbar trunk
    • intestinal trunk
    • bronchomediastinal trunk
    • subclavian trunk
    • jugular trunk
  33. drains lymph from the lower extremities and the walls and viscera of the pelvis, the kidneys and adrenal glands and abdominal wall
    lumbar trunk
  34. drains lymph from the stomach, intestines, pancreas, spleen and surface of the liver
    intestinal trunk
  35. drains thorax, lungs, heart, diaphragm and the rest of the liver
    bronchomediastinal trunk
  36. helps drain lymph from portions of the thorax
    intercostal trunk
  37. drains the upper extremities
    subclavian trunk
  38. drains the head and neck
    jugular trunk
  39. it is the main collecting duct of the system
    thoracic duct or left lymphatic duct
  40. these are masses of lymphoid tissue embedded in mucous membrane
  41. these are the ones commonly removes in a tonsillectomy
    palatine tonsils
  42. located in the tonsillar fosae
    palatine tonsil
  43. they are located close to the internal opening of the nasal cavity
    pharyngeal tonsils
  44. other term for pharyngeal tonsils
  45. they are located at the back surface of the tongue at its base
    lingual tonsils
  46. it is oval in shape and is the single largest mass of lymphatic tissue n the body
  47. length of the spleen
    12cm or 5 in
  48. slightly concave border
  49. phagocytizes bacteria and worn out patelets and red blood cels
  50. bilobed mass of tisue located in the mediastinum along the trachea behind the sternum
    thymus gland
  51. it is the site for lymphocyte production and maturation
  52. helps develop T lymphocytes in the fetus
  53. Peyer's patches is also known as
    aggregated lymphatic follicles
  54. they are found in the wall of the small intestine
    Peyer's patches
  55. it is the ability of the body to resist infection from the disease-causing microorganism or pathogens
  56. these are the results of the body's lymphoid tissue
    • humoral immunity
    • cellular immunity
  57. the bulk of the lymphoid tissue is located in the ___
    lymph nodes
  58. these are cells that produce antibodies and provide humoral immunity
    B lymphocytes
  59. effective against circulating bacterial and viral infections
    humoral immunity
  60. b lymphocytes that enter tissues are called
    plasma cells
  61. they are responsible for providing cellular immuity
    T lymphocytes
  62. these cells come from thymus gland
    t lymphocytes
  63. this type of immunity is effective against fungi, parasites, intracellular viral infections, cancer cells and foreign tissue implants
    cellular immunity
  64. these are foreign proteins that gain access to our bodies via cuts and scapes
  65. high molecular weight proteins that destroy foreign invaders
    antibodies or immunoglobulins
  66. they are formed in response to an enormous number of antigens
  67. they have a basic structure of four amino acid chains linked together by disulfide bonds
  68. 400 amino acids
    heavy chains
  69. half as long as heavy chains
    light chains
  70. it is found in tissue fluid and plasma and attacks viruses, bacteria and toxins
    immunoglobulin G
  71. it is found in exocrine secretions, nasal fluid, tears, gastric and intestinal juice, bile, breast milk and rine
    Immunoglobulin A
  72. develops in blood plasma as a response to bacteria of antigens in food
    Immunoglobulin M
  73. it is found in the surface of B lymphocytes ad is important in B cell activation
    Immunoglobulin D
  74. associated with allergic reactions, attacking allergy-causing antigens
    Immunoglobulin E
  75. this is when B lymphocytes come in contact with antigens and produce antibodies against them
    active immunity
  76. it contains either killed pathogens or live but weak pathogens
  77. it is when a fetus receives its mother's antibodies
    passive immunity
  78. it is a major role for macrophages and is absolutely necessary for activation and clonal response of the T cells
    antigen presentation
  79. they are formed by replicating B cell and produce a huge number of same antibody
    plasma cells
  80. T cells that bind with specific antigens presented by macrophages
    helper t cells
  81. they stimulate the production of killer T cells
    helper t cells
  82. kill virus-invaded body cells and cancerous cells and also involved in graft rejection
    killer t cells
  83. slows down activities of B and T cells
    suppressor T ccells
  84. descendants of activated T and B cells produced during initial immune response
    memory cellls
  85. engulf and digest antigens
  86. released by sensitized t lymphocytes