Physical Science Unit 4

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jb124
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284121
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Physical Science Unit 4
Updated:
2014-09-30 18:47:20
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atoms
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atoms
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  1. matter is made up of particles called ___
    atoms
  2. who suggested the universe was made of indivisible units?
    Greek philosopher Democritus
  3. "atom" means?
    unable to be cut or divided
  4. Dalton's atomic theory
    all atoms of a given element were exactly alike, and atoms of different elements could join to form compounds
  5. law of definite proportions
    a chemical compound always contains the same elements in exactly the same proportions by weight or mass
  6. whose theory is considered the foundation for modern atomic theory?
    Dalton's theory
  7. for any given water sample, the proportions of hydrogen and oxygen by mass are ___
    constant
  8. who conducted an experiment that suggested atoms were not indivisible?
    J.J. Thomson
  9. mysterious rays in vacuum tubes
    cathode rays
  10. according to Thomson's experiment, cathode rays are made of ___ particles that came from ___
    • 1. ¬†negatively charged
    • 2. ¬†inside atoms
  11. cathode has what type charge?
    negative
  12. anode has what type charge?
    positive
  13. negatively charged particles inside the atom
    electrons
  14. what did Rutherford propose?
    most of the mass of the atom was concentrated at the atom's center
  15. positively charged, dense core of the atom
    nucleus
  16. nucleus contains particles called ___ and ___
    protons and neutrons
  17. protons have ___ charge
    positive
  18. neutrons have ___ charge
    no
  19. the 3 main subatomic particles are distinguished by?
    • mass
    • charge
    • location in the atom
  20. tiny, negatively charged particles moving around outside the nucleus
    electrons
  21. the mass of an electron is ___ than that of a proton or neutron
    much smaller
  22. how many protons does a hydrogen atom have?
    one
  23. how many protons does a helium atom have?
    two
  24. how many protons does lithium have?
    three
  25. if an atom gains or loses electrons, it becomes ___
    charged
  26. charged atom
    ion
  27. force attracting positive and negative charges
    electric force
  28. number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
    atomic number
  29. sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
    mass number
  30. an atom that has the same number of protons as other atoms of the same element, but has a different number of neutrons
    isotope
  31. unstable isotopes
    radioisotopes
  32. what does the number 235 represent in U-235?
    mass number
  33. unit of mass that describes the mass of an atom or molecule - equal to 1/12 the mass of a carbon-12
    unified atomic mass unit (amu)
  34. weighted average of an element
    average atomic mass
  35. collection of a very large number of particles
    mole
  36. mass in grams of one mole of substance
    molar mass
  37. who suggested that the energy of each electron was related to the electron's path around the nucleus?
    Niels Bohr
  38. according to Bohr's new atomic model, how do electrons behave?
    like waves
  39. can the exact location of an electron be determined?
    no
  40. region in an atom where there is high probability of finding electrons
    orbital
  41. what does the number of energy levels that are filled in an atom depend on?
    number of electrons
  42. electrons in the outer energy level of an atom
    valence electrons
  43. valence electrons determine what type of properties of an atom?
    chemical
  44. four kinds of orbitals
    • s
    • p
    • d
    • f
  45. which orbital is the simplest?
    s
  46. orbital shaped like a sphere
    s
  47. orbital shaped like a dumbbell
    p
  48. how many possible p orbitals are there?
    3
  49. how many possible d orbitals are there?
    5
  50. how many possible f orbitals are there?
    7
  51. when do electrons jump between energy levels?
    when an atom gains or loses energy
  52. lowest state of energy of an electron
    ground state
  53. when does an electron move to an excited state?
    when it gains energy
  54. a unit or quantum of light
    photon
  55. energy of a photon is related to what?
    wavelength of the light

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