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  1. What is referred by infant mortality?
    Reflects first year of life
  2. How many deaths occur in first month after brith?
    2/3s of deaths
  3. What's US ranking in infant mortality?
  4. What do improvements in infant mortality represent changes in which departments? (3)
    -social circumstances

    -infectious disease control

    -availability of safe and nutritious foods
  5. Which category of high risk infants are more vulnerable to die in first year?
    • Low birth weight infants
    • *they comprise of the majority of infant deaths
  6. How much do low birth weight infants weigh?
    weigh less than 5.8 pounds
  7. Which population is more at risk of low birth weight infants?
  8. What is very low birth weight classified as?
    weigh less than 3.4 pounds
  9. What is pre term infants?
    -infants born less than 37 weeks gestation
  10. What are the 3 categories that comprise of high risk infants?
    -low birth weight

    -very low birth weight

    -pre-term infants
  11. Healthy objectives for year 2020) what are 3 goals for pregnant women and newborns?
    -reduction of LBW babies

    -preterm delivery

    -infant mortality
  12. Healthy objectives for year 2020) 8 specific objectives
    -reduce anemia among low income pregnant female in 3rd trimester

    -reduce infant mortality

    -reduce incidence of spinal bifida and other neural tube effects

    -reduce low birth weight

    - reduce pre term births

    -increase abstinence from alcohol use which pregnancy

    -reduce FAS

    -increase proportion of women who gain healthy weight during pregnancy
  13. What is the critical period define as?
    Period of development in which certain evens occur that will have irreversible effects on later developmental stages

    *this period is usually a time of rapid cell division
  14. Summary of when critical period is and when malnutrition occurs
    -basically if malnutrition occurs in critical period then the baby will not be able to full recover from the damage done. If malnutrition occurred at some other time, they have a better chance of recovering
  15. Early pregnancy and malnutrition
    Severe limit of nutrients would cause retarded growth but if there isn't enough nutrients for cell division or cell synthesis, malformation will occur or fetus will die
  16. Malnutrition and 3rd month of pregnancy
    Malnutrition would not have teratogenic effects but it could interfere with fetal growth
  17. During last trimester of pregnancy and malnutrition
    nutrient needs are greatest bc cells are increasing rapidly in both number and size
  18. What causes variations in fetal growth? (5)
    -pre-pregnancy underweight

    -low weight gain during pregnancy

    -poor dietary intakes


    -drug abuse
  19. Conditions that interfere with genetically stimulated growth and development) what 3 functions does insulin-like growth factor have?
    -primary growth stimulator of the fetus

    -promotes uptake of nutrients by the fetus

    -inhibits fetal tissue breakdown
  20. Conditions that interfere with genetically stimulated growth and development) malnutrition and insulin like growth factor
    IGF-1 is decreased with maternal malnutrition thus decreases muscle and skeletal mass with asymmetrical growth
  21. Intrauterine growth retardation) newborns are generally considered likely to have experience intrauterine growth retardation IF
    Their weight for gestational age or length is low
  22. 2 categories under small for gestational age
    -disproportional small for gestational age

    -proportionally small for gestational age
  23. 2 general characteristics of infants that are small for geeational age
    -weigh below 10% for weight for gestational age

    • -full term infants but poorly developed
    • *conditions are variable suggesting multiple causes and timings
  24. Disproportionately small for gestation age) 4 characteristics
    -weigh less than 10%tile of weight for gestational age

    -growth retardation affecting primarily weight

    -have normal length and head circumference for age

    -infants have poorly developed muscles and little subcutaneous fat
  25. Disproportionately small for gestation age) when did malformation most likely occur?
    • Later in 3rd trimester
    • *part which comprised liver glycogen and fat storage
  26. Proportionally small for gestational age) 3 characterisitics
    -look small but well proportioned

    -growth reduction in both weight and height

    -size of all body parts is reduced proportionally
  27. Proportionally small for gestational age) what might've caused this?
    • Long term malnutrition
    • *these guys have harder time adjusting
  28. Large for gestational age) how are infants classified in this category?
    Infants than weigh more than 90%ile for gestational age
  29. Large for gestational age) what is this related to? (3)
    -pre-pregnancy obesity

    -poorly controlled diabetes

    -excessive weight gain, more than 44 pounds
  30. Large for gestational age) small or large for gestational age experience more problems?
  31. How are miscarriages caused? (3)
    -genetic, uterine, or hormonal abnormalities

    -reproductive tract ifnections

    -tissue rejection due to immune system disorders
  32. What percent of implanted embryos are lost by reabsorption into uterus or expulsion before 20th week fo pregnancy?
  33. 3 nutritional causes that increases chance of miscarriage?
    -large amounts of caffeine


    • -high homocysteine levels
    • *this causes inflammation
  34. How does preterm delivery occur? (8)
    It is unclear but can be related to...

    • -genital tract infections
    • -insufficient uterine-placental flow
    • -placental abruption
    • -pre-pregnancy underweight
    • -low weight in pregnancy
    • -high levels of stress
    • -obesity
    • -low levels of folate
  35. Preterm delivery infants) common problems with these infants (4)



    -conditions due to immaturity of organs
  36. Preterm delivery infants) these babies may have..
    -low stores of fat, glycogen, fatty acids, and other nutrients
  37. Fetal origins hypothesis of later disease) what is the theory about?
    • That exposure to adverse nutritional and other conditions during critical periods of growth can permanently affect body structures and functions
    • *these changes may predispose individuals to CVD, DM, HTN etc
  38. Fetal origins hypothesis of later disease)Summary of birth weight and risk of diseases
    The lower the birth weight the higher the rates were for heart disease and stroke

    *validating the theory
  39. Fetal origins hypothesis of later disease) if there are less than optimal growing condition during gestation... then
    fetal tissues make adaptations to cope with energy and nutrient shortages and excesses by changing its requirements for energy and nutrients to help it survive and biologically preparing fetus for similar nutritional circumstances after birth

    *nutrition programming
  40. Fetal origins hypothesis of later disease) why is nutrition programming significant?
    • The availability of energy and nutrients during fetal development influences the programming of gene functions
    • *the structure of the gene is not changed but it switches off
  41. Fetal-origins hypothesis of later disease risk) research findings on adaptations to ensure CNS receives adequate glucose when glucose is limited...
    expression of genes that produce insulin receptors on muscle cell membrane may be suppressed in response to low glucose levels thus leads to decrease uptake of glucose leaving more glucose available for CNS development
  42. Fetal-origins hypothesis of later disease risk) low weight gain around mid pregnancy is asscoaited with...
    Higher blood pressure in children
  43. Fetal-origins hypothesis of later disease risk) low levels of maternal body fat during pregnancy associated with...
    Increased risk of heart disease in offspring
Card Set
Nutrition and pregnancy II
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