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Who identified the brain as the organ of mental life?
believed that "truth" lies in the mind and it depends on our individual perceptions and subjective states
Socrates and Plato
What is Psychology?
Is the Scientific study of mental processes and mental behavior
Which are the goals of Psichology?
Describe, Explain, Predict and control behavior.
First person to advocate empirical testing and observation.
Who use direct observation to test his theory of medicine, which led to the development of the scientific method.
Who is considered the father of Psychology
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)
who established the first psychology lab in 1879
Started a branch of psychology called voluntarism, which studied the consciousness
- - Was an attempt to try and identify all of the elements of consciousness .
- - Used introspection, which it is to look within yourself to identify conscious elements.
- - Founded by Edward Titchener (1867-1927)
Who found the first Psychology laboratory in the United States.
- - Believed that the mental processes were fluid instead of fixed elements.
- - Emphasizes the purpose of the mind or its function in adapting to the environment.
- - Founded by William James (1842-1910)
Who was the first Psychologist in the United States.
Wrote the first Psychology textbook (Principles of Psychology on 1890).
- - Stated that consciousness CAN NOT be broken down into small elements.
- - Studied the orderly ways in which we perceive things (we tend to focus on whole perceptual units).
- - Believed that people's behaviors are based in their unconscious desires.
- - Founded by Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
- - The believe that scientific investigation of psychology should be focused only on behavior that can be seen.
- - Founded by Ivan Pavlov (1846-1936)
Who discovered that dogs could associate a bell with an automatic behavior, such as salivation. (stimuli elements of the environment that trigger changes in our internal or external states)
which behaviorist conducted the "lil Albert" experiment and solidified classical conditioning
John B Watson (1878-1958)
which behaviorist developed operant conditioning (uses reinforcement or punishment to shape behaviors.
BF Skinner (1904-1990)
- - Stresses a person's capacity for personal growth, freedom to choose his or her destiny, and positive qualities.
- - Founded by Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow.
Which humanistic developed the " client-centered therapy" which said that people are innately good.
Which Humanistic developed the theory of motivation of a hierarchy of needs.
- - Focused in the important role in mental processes in how people process information, develop language, solve problems and think.
- - founded by Ulric Niesser (1928- )
- Ulric coined the term cognitive psychology to the study of information processing
- The study of how cognitive processes vary across different cultures.
- Which cognitive processes are universal and which processes are specific to different cultures.
Main Branches of Psychology
- - Clinical and counseling psychology.
- - Academic.
- - Applied.
whats inductive reasoning
Uses specific examples to make general conclusions
What's deductive reasoning
Uses general principles to apply to a specific situation
Steps in scientific method
- - Make observations.
- - develop hypothesis: Testable predictions and falsifiable.
- - Test hypothesis.
- - Build a Theory.
How do Psychologists conduct research
- Two parts to a study:
- - Independent variable (the one that you manipulate) IV.
- - Dependable variable (the variable that is meassured or affected by the IV) DV.
what are the types pf research
- - Descriptive: research method used to observe and describe behavior.
- - Experimental: research method used to demostrate the cause-and-effect relationships between 2 variables.
types of descriptive research
- - Naturalistic observation.
- - Surveys.
- - Case studies.
- - Correlational studies.
how is developmental psychology investigated
- - Cross-sectional research: compares many different age groups at one time point.
- - Longitudinal research: Studies the same group of individuals over multiple points.
What's the Cohort-sequential design
its a type of research that combines cross-sectional and longitudinal research.
What's the genotype
the total sum of all the genes that a person inherits.
the way in which the genes are actually expressed; eye color, hair color, etc.
stages pf prenatal development
- - Germinal stage: 0-2 weeks; zygote. Starts when egg is fertilized, ends when implants in the uterus.
- - Embryonic: 2-8 weeks;Major organs develop.
- - fetal stage:9-36 weeks; muscular, skeletal and organ system dvelop.
What's a teratogen
Any substance that cuses damage to during gestation.
Piaget's cognitive developmental theory
- - How children think and learn: schema- a mental framework for organizing information.
- - assimilation; putting new information in to existing schema.
- - accommodation: creating new schema for new information.
- - equilibrium: all information is organized into schemas.
What are the parental styles
- - authorative; warm, sensitive to child needs, makes reasonable demands and encourages appropriate autonomy.
- - Authoritarian: Cold, rejecting, makes coercive demands; frequently critical of child
- - Permissive: Warm, accepting but overindulgent and inattentive.
- - Uninvolved: detached and depressed.
Kohlberg's three stages of moral development.
- - Pre-conventional: Morality centers on what you can get away with
- - Conventional: morality centers on avoiding others' disapproval and obeying society's rules.
- - Post-conventional: morality is determined by abstract ethical principles.
Erickson's stages of psycho social development.
- stage 1:trust vs mistrust (birth-age 1)
- stage 2: autonomy vs shame and doubt(1-3)
- stage 3: initiative vs guilt.(3-6)
- stage 4: industry vs inferiority.(6-12)
- stage 5: identity vs role confusion.(12-20)
- stage 6: intimacy vs isolation.(20-30)
- stage 7: generativity vs stagnation.(30-65)
- stage 8: integrity vs dispair. (65 +)
study of the development of psychological disorders, such as autism, schizophrenia
How do scientist study the nervous system?
- - Examining autopsy tissue.
- - Testing the behavior of patients with brain damage.
- - electroencephalograms (EEG), recording brain activity from the surface of the sclap.
- - Neuro-imaging: positron emission tomography(PET), funcitonal Magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)/
Parts of a neuron:
- - Dendrites.
- - Cell body.
- - Myelin sheath.
- - Nodes of Ranvier.
- - Axon terminals.
What's action potential
When a neuron is at rest.
What's action potential
sudden change in the electrical charge inside the axon.
What's the CNS
Brain and Spinal cord
What's the PNS
Somatic nervous system (all neourons that take sensory information and deliver to the spinal cord)and the Autonomic nervous system (Sympathetic and parasympathetic).
structures of the brain
- - Brain stem.
- - Pons.
- - Cerebellum.
- - Midbrain.
- - Thalamus.
- - Hypothalamus.
- - Pituitary gland.
- - Amigdala.
- - Hyppocampus.
- - Cerebral cortex.
What conforms the Brain stem and its functions
- - The brain stem regulates basic life functions.
- - Parts of brain stem:
- * Reticular formation= regulates sleep/walk cycle.
- * Pons= main source of norepinephrine which is important for arousal and attention.
- * Medulla= regulates heartbeat, breathing, swallowing and coughing.
Cerebellum and its functions.
- - controls motor coordination.
- - Helpful in learning things that involve moving (walking etc)
- - It is located on the back of the brain nad is connected to the brain stem.
- its found right on top of the brain stem and it has large variety of functions.
- - Thalamus: Brain's telephone operator, directs messages to the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla.
- - hypothalamus: helps direct eating, drinking, sex, body temperature and blood chemistry.
- - Pituitary gland: Regulates hormones.
- - Amygdala: Fear and aggression.
- - hippocampus: Memory.
- - striatum: fluid movements, unconscious learning and memory.
- - Nucleus accumbens: motivation, reward and addiction.
- located on the outter part of the brain.
- - frontal lobe: higher intellectual thinking
- * Brocca's area= speech production.
- - Occipital lobe: vision
- * wernicke's area= speech comprehension
- - Parietal: perception of touch.
- - Temporal lobe: hearing and language, learning, and memory.
- * somatosensory strip= contains neurons that register the sensation of touch.
Cerebral cortex there are the following strips
- - Primary sensory strip= Registers sensory neurons.
- - Primary motor strip= responsible for movement.
- - Association cortex= areas responsible for complex functions.
- -communicates information from one side of the brain to the other.
- -connects the two brain hemispheres.
An individual's unique characteristics that account for enduring pattern of inner experience and outward behavior.
- Based on Freud's theories:
- - Personality is shaped by dynamic, underlying, often unconscious forces.
- Developed Psychoanalysis: Type of therapy based on his theory of discovering one's unconscious.
- Unconscious mind:
- - id= seeks pleassure and avoids pain (sex,food, aggression)
- - Ego= Logical. rational, realistic part of the personality.
- - superego= Moral component of the personality.
What are Freud's psychosexual stages
- 1 oral (0-18 months) Weaning
- 2 Anus (18 months-3 years) toilet training
- 3 Phallic (3-6 years) attraction op sex
- 4 Latency (6 years to puberty) Repress. sex.
- 5 Genital (Puberty- adult)
common defense mechanisms:
- - Repression.
- - denial.
- - Rationalizing.
- - Reaction formation.
- - projection.
- - Displacement.
- - Sublimation.
- - Regression.
- - Identification.
- - Intellectualization
Humanistic theories emphasize on
- - free will.
- - people's desires to full fill their potential.
The trait perspective:
- - Trait theorist describe personality as a collection of traits.
- - First trait theorist was Gordon allport.
What are the five factors in the model of personality.
- - Openness.
- - Conscientiousness.
- - Extraversion.
- - Agreeableness.
- - Neurotism.
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