NUR1423, Keywords Exam 1

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NUR1423, Keywords Exam 1
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2014-09-26 05:10:02
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NUR1423, Keywords Exam 1
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  1. diastasis recti
    A separation of the two halves of the rectus abdominis muscles in the midline at the linea alba. The diastasis may require surgical repair depending upon its severity; it is benign in pregnant women.
  2. afterpain
    Uterine cramping caused by contraction of the uterus and commonly seen in multiparas during the first few days after childbirth. The pains are more severe during breastfeeding but rarely last longer than 48 hr postpartum.PATIENT CAREEmptying the bladder can relieve pain. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may be useful; they should be given with food before nursing. Some women obtain relief lying on their stomachs. Aspirin should not be given if there is a tendency to bleed. The sooner an analgesic is given, the less is needed
  3. engrossment
    An attitude of total focus on something or someone. In obstetrics, the term denotes attachment behavior exhibited by new parents during initial contacts with their newborns.
  4. Homans sign
    Pain in the calf when the foot is passively dorsiflexed. This is a physical finding suggestive of venous thrombosis of the deep veins of the calf; however, diagnostic reliability is limited, that is, elicited calf pain may be associated with conditions other than thrombosis, and an absence of calf pain does not rule out thrombosis
  5. uterine atony
    uterine not contracting, risk for bleeding
  6. erythema toxicum
    A benign, self-limited rash marked by firm, yellow-white papules or pustules from 1 to 2 mm in size present in about 50% of full-term infants. The cause is unknown, and the lesions disappear without need for treatment.
  7. cavernous hemangioma
    A benign tumor found on the skin or in an internal organ, composed of dilated blood vessels, and often encapsulated within a fibrous shell.
  8. cephalohematoma
    A mass composed of clotted blood, located between the periosteum and the skull of a newborn. It is confined between suture lines and usually is unilateral. The cause is rupture of periosteal bridging veins due to pressure and friction during labor and delivery. The blood reabsorbs gradually within a few weeks of birth. Incidence is 1.5-2.5% of all deliveries. The overlying scalp is not discolored. If the lesion is extensive, hyperbilirubinemia may develop.
  9. subconjunctival hemorrhage
    • Rupture of the superficial capillaries with associated hemorrhage into the subconjunctival space.
    • CAUSES Subconjunctival hemorrhage can result from blunt trauma to the eye or from increased intracranial or intraocular pressure.
    • SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS Patients have visible bleeding between the sclera and the conjunctiva.
    • TREATMENT A subconjunctival hemorrhage normally resolves within 1 to 7 days.
  10. thrush
    impaired Oral Mucous Membrane may be related to presence of infection as evidenced by white patches/plaques, oral discomfort, mucosal irritation, bleeding.
  11. vernix caseosa
    • A protective sebaceous deposit covering the fetus during intrauterine life, consisting of exfoliations of the outer skin layer, lanugo, and secretions of the sebaceous glands.
    • It helps the neonate conserve body heat.
    • It is most abundant in the creases and flexor surfaces.
    • It is not necessary to remove this after the fetus is delivered.
  12. areola
    1. A small space or cavity in a tissue. 2. A circular area of different pigmentation, as around a wheal, around the nipple of the breast, or the part of the iris around the pupil. areolar (-lăr), adj.
  13. fore milk
    Milk released at the beginning of each breast-feeding that contains a high percentage of water, protein, and vitamins but a lower percentage of fat than the hind milk that is released later.
  14. hind milk
    Milk released at the end of a breast-feeding, distinguished by its high fat content.
  15. interferon
    Any of a group of glycoproteins with antiviral activity. The antiviral type I interferons (alpha and beta interferons) are produced by leukocytes and fibroblasts in response to invasion by a pathogen, particularly a virus. These interferons enable invaded cells to produce class I major histocompatibility complex surface antigens, increasing their ability to be recognized and killed by T lymphocytes. They also inhibit virus production within infected cells. Type I alpha interferon is used to treat condyloma acuminatum, chronic hepatitis B and C, and Kaposi's sarcoma. Type I beta interferon is used to treat multiple sclerosis.Type II gamma interferon is distinctly different from and less antiviral than the other interferons. It is a lymphokine, excreted primarily by CD8+ T cells and the helper T subset of CD4+ cells that stimulates several types of antigen-presenting cells, particularly macrophages, to release class II MHC antigens that enhance CD4+ activity. It is used to treat chronic granulomatous disease. SEE: cell, antigen-presenting; macrophage
  16. lactoferrin
    An enzyme released in phagocytosis by neutrophils and macrophages that combines with iron in the blood. As a result, the iron is unavailable to invading pathogens that require iron for their reproduction.
  17. lysozyme
    An enzyme found in neutrophils, macrophages, tears, saliva, and other body secretions. It inhibits the growth of bacteria by damaging their cell walls.
  18. early preterm
    24-34 weeks
  19. late preterm
    34-37 weeks
  20. postterm
    >42  weeks
  21. prolactin
    A hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland. In humans, prolactin in association with estrogen and progesterone stimulates breast development and the formation of milk during pregnancy. The act of sucking is an important stimulus for the production of prolactin in the postpartum period. Some of the metabolic effects of prolactin resemble those of growth hormone. In the female this includes amenorrhea, galactorrhea, and infertility. In the male it may cause erectile dysfunction. Hyperprolactinemia may be associated with amenorrhea in women and reduced sexual potency in men. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone and stress of all kinds can stimulate prolactin release
  22. endometritis
    Inflammation of the lining of the uterus. Organisms may migrate through the cervical canal along mucosal surfaces, piggyback on sperm, or be carried on tampons or intrauterine devices. The inflammation may be acute, subacute, or chronic. The disorder is most common among females of childbearing age. The woman is at highest risk for endometritis during the immediate postpartum period. Endometritis that is not associated with pregnancy may result from pelvic inflammatory disease or invasive gynecologic procedures.

    ETIOLOGY Endometritis usually results from an ascending bacterial invasion of the uterine cavity. Common offenders include Staphylococcus aureus and group B streptococcus, both of which are present in normal vaginal flora.
  23. mastitis
    Inflammation or infection of the breast.
  24. peritonitis
    Inflammation of the serous membrane that lines the abdominal cavity and its viscera.
  25. puerperal infection
    infection of the genital tract
  26. subinvolution
    Imperfect involution; incomplete return of a part to normal dimensions after physiological hypertrophy.

    subinvolution of uterus  The lack of involution of the uterus following childbirth, manifested by a large uterus (greater than 100 g) and a continuation of lochia rubra beyond the usual time. It is caused usually by puerperal infection, overdistention of the uterus by multiple pregnancies or polyhydramnios, lack of lactation, malposition of the uterus, and retained secundines. Involution is aided by the certainty that the placenta is intact at the time of delivery and the use of ecbolics to cause uterine contraction.
  27. thrombophlebitis
    Inflammation of a vein in conjunction with the formation of a thrombus. It usually occurs in an extremity, most frequently a leg.
  28. dysmature
    A condition in which newborns weigh less than established normal parameters for the estimated gestational age.
  29. ECMO extracorporeal membrane oxygenator
    A device for mechanically oxygenating blood, e.g., during thoracic or open-heart surgery.
  30. hemorrhagic disease of the newborn
    Hemorrhaging in the newborn caused by an inadequate supply of prothrombin received from the mother or a delay in the establishment of the bacterial intestinal flora that produces vitamin K. Parenteral vitamin K given to the infant within 6 hr of birth prevents this condition.
  31. ophthalmia neonatorum
    • Severe purulent conjunctivitis in the newborn.
    • ETIOLOGY Infection of the birth canal at the time of delivery. Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis are responsible for the great majority of cases. Symptoms are present 12 to 48 hr after birth when due to gonorrhea and 1 week or more after birth for Chlamydia infections.
    • PROPHYLAXIS Erythromycin ophthalmic ointment or other approved agents are introduced into the conjunctival sac of each eye of the newborn to prevent gonorrheal or chlamydial conjunctivitis.
  32. retinopathy of prematurity
    retinopathy of prematurity ABBR: ROP

    A bilateral disease of the retinal vessels in preterm infants. It is the most prominent cause of blindness among preterm infants. SYN: retrolental fibroplasia

    CAUSES Its cause is unknown despite much research, but oxygen levels and other environmental factors may be factors.

    SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS The disease is marked by retinal neovascularization in the first weeks of life. Retinal detachment may occur.

    PREVENTION In treating preterm infants, it is possible to prevent ROP by using only the lowest possible effective oxygen concentration that will not endanger the life of the infant. Monitoring arterial blood oxygen levels is essential in preventing ROP.

    TREATMENT Cryotherapy or laser photocoagulation can be curative if instituted early in the illness.

    IMPACT ON HEALTH Too much restriction of oxygen, however, increases the likelihood of hyaline membrane disease and neurological disorders.PATIENT CAREAll preterm infants treated with supplemental oxygen should be examined carefully by an ophthalmologist before discharge from the hospital. Once blindness develops, there is no effective treatment.

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