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The process of reabsorbing water is regulated by
Waste products that contain nitrogen are produced by
cells as they metabolize ________ (proteins/lipids/carbohydrates).
Urea is produced by the ________ from ammonia and
liver, carbon dioxide
The mechanism of countercurrent
exchange predominantly is used by the ________.
loop of Henle
Urine is moved through the ureter to the bladder by
muscular contractions known as ________.
Each kidney is made up of a million ________, the
functional unit of a kidney
) The glomerulus (capillary network) of each nephron
is enclosed by a portion of the nephron known as ________.
Nutrients, water, and ions
reabsorbed by the proximal and distal tubules enter the ________ capillaries.
Sodium is moved out of tubular cells by ________.
ADH ________ the permeability of the cells of the
collecting duct to water.
Tubular reabsorption occurs when most of the fluid and
solutes move back into the ________.
Blood volume is controlled through a negative
feedback mechanism that involves several intermediate molecules; ________ not
only stimulates the release of aldosterone but also causes vasoconstriction.
The steroid hormone ________ regulates the
reabsorption of sodium across the collecting duct and distal tubule.
Three organs in the human body are involved in the
production of vitamin D; they are the ________, ________, and ________.
skin, liver, kidneys
Chloride ions move by ________ , following transport
of sodium out of tubular cells.
Important components of food that are needed by the
body for reproduction, growth, and good health are ________.
Mucosal cells of the stomach secrete ________ , which binds to vitamin B12 so that it can be better absorbed in the small
Region of the small intestine that is NOT associated
with absorption of nutrients is called ________.
Brush border” refers to ________ found on the surface
of the epithelial cells of the small intestine.
Lipids are not soluble in
water, therefore they must be ________ before they can be digested.
The digestion of proteins,
lipids, and carbohydrates is completed in the ________.
The small, fingerlike structure that extends from the
cecum is the ________; this organ has no known digestive function
Bacteria residing in the large intestine release
________, which is absorbed by the human host and used for the process of blood
Gastrin is a hormone secreted by the ________.
Natural sugars such as those from fruit and honey
are classified as ________ (simple/complex).
Fats that are liquids at room temperature are ________
The amount of energy needed by the body to perform
essential functions such as breathing is the
basal metabolic rate (BMR)
Maintenance of muscle tone in the walls of the blood
vessels is an example of ________ muscle contractions
Since contraction of the hamstrings causes the knee to
bend and contraction of the quadricep causes the knee to extend, these muscles
are said to be ________.
Fascicles of a muscle are enclosed in ________ which
converge to form the ________ that attach the muscle to a bone
The portion of a myofibril from one Z-line to the next is a
The region where a skeletal muscle
cell and a motor neuron come into close proximity to one another is the
The neurotransmitter, ________, has an excitatory
effect on skeletal muscle, causing it to contract
The electrical impulse generated by a muscle cell
membrane is transmitted to the sarcoplasmic reticulum by ________.
T (transverse) tubules
absence of calcium, myosin cannot contact actin because of the presence of the
________ covering the myosin binding site of actin.
The most common reason that muscle fatigues is the
lack of enough ________ to meet the metabolic demands placed on the muscle
The ability to maintain an upright position is due to
________ (isotonic/isometric) muscle contractions
As the rate of stimulation of motor units of a muscle
increases, muscle force increases. This process is known as ________.
The mechanical force that is generated when a muscle
contracts is known as ________.
According to the ________ principle, a muscle cell
will contract completely when stimulated by a motor neuron
swinging of a tennis racket is a brief, high-intensity activity that requires the
contraction of ________ fibers.
Cells in cardiac muscle that determine the rate of
contraction are ________ cells.
Stem cells in red bone marrow give rise to ________
and ________ cells
) Ligaments attach ________ to bone.
The end of a long bone is known as the ________.
________ forms the embryonic structures that later become
Trabeculae are located in ________ bone.
outer surface of a bone is covered with a tough
connective tissue called the ________.
The process by which the cartilage of fetal bones is
gradually replaced with bone tissue is
Cells that produce cartilage are ________.
The region of a long bone where cartilage is produced
as a model for lengthening bone is the ________.
: growth plate
When bones undergo repair, the process begins with the
formation of a blood clot known as
The blood calcium level is regulated by two hormones:
________ causes an increase in blood calcium, while ________ causes a decrease
in blood calcium
parathyroid hormone, calcitonin
The coccyx is classified as a ________ structure
because it no longer has a function
Vertebrae of the spinal cord are separated from each
other by compressible, flat structures called ________.
Immovable joints such as those found between bones of
the skull are ________ joints.
The coxal bones of the pelvic girdle meet in front at
the ________, where they are joined by cartilage