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2014-09-26 05:58:44

exam2 terms
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  1. The process of reabsorbing water is regulated by
    antidiuretic hormone
  2. Waste products that contain nitrogen are produced by
    cells as they metabolize ________ (proteins/lipids/carbohydrates).
  3. Urea is produced by the ________ from ammonia and
    liver, carbon dioxide
  4. The mechanism of countercurrent
    exchange predominantly is used by the ________.
    loop of Henle
  5. Urine is moved through the ureter to the bladder by
    muscular contractions known as ________.
  6. Each kidney is made up of a million ________, the
    functional unit of a kidney
  7. ) The glomerulus (capillary network) of each nephron
    is enclosed by a portion of the nephron known as ________.
    Bowman’s capsule
  8. Nutrients, water, and ions
    reabsorbed by the proximal and distal tubules enter the ________ capillaries.
  9. Sodium is moved out of tubular cells by ________.
    active transport
  10. ADH ________ the permeability of the cells of the
    collecting duct to water.
  11. Tubular reabsorption occurs when most of the fluid and
    solutes move back into the ________.
    peritubular capillaries
  12. Blood volume is controlled through a negative
    feedback mechanism that involves several intermediate molecules; ________ not
    only stimulates the release of aldosterone but also causes vasoconstriction.
    angiotensin II
  13. The steroid hormone ________ regulates the
    reabsorption of sodium across the collecting duct and distal tubule.
  14. Three organs in the human body are involved in the
    production of vitamin D; they are the ________, ________, and ________.
    skin, liver, kidneys
  15. Chloride ions move by ________ , following transport
    of sodium out of tubular cells.
    passive diffusion
  16. Important components of food that are needed by the
    body for reproduction, growth, and good health are ________.
  17. Mucosal cells of the stomach secrete ________ , which binds to vitamin B12 so that it can be better absorbed in the small
    intrinsic factor
  18. Region of the small intestine that is NOT associated
    with absorption of nutrients is called ________.
  19. Brush border” refers to ________ found on the surface
    of the epithelial cells of the small intestine.
  20. Lipids are not soluble in
    water, therefore they must be ________ before they can be digested.
  21. The digestion of proteins,
    lipids, and carbohydrates is completed in the ________.
    small intestine
  22. The small, fingerlike structure that extends from the
    cecum is the ________; this organ has no known digestive function
  23. Bacteria residing in the large intestine release
    ________, which is absorbed by the human host and used for the process of blood
    vitamin K
  24. Gastrin is a hormone secreted by the ________.
  25. Natural sugars such as those from fruit and honey
    are classified as ________ (simple/complex).
  26. Fats that are liquids at room temperature are ________
  27. The amount of energy needed by the body to perform
    essential functions such as breathing is the
    basal metabolic rate (BMR)
  28. Maintenance of muscle tone in the walls of the blood
    vessels is an example of ________ muscle contractions
  29. Since contraction of the hamstrings causes the knee to
    bend and contraction of the quadricep causes the knee to extend, these muscles
    are said to be ________.
  30. Fascicles of a muscle are enclosed in ________ which
    converge to form the ________ that attach the muscle to a bone
    fasciae, tendons
  31. The portion of a myofibril from one Z-line to the next is a
  32. The region where a skeletal muscle
    cell and a motor neuron come into close proximity to one another is the
    neuromuscular junction
  33. The neurotransmitter, ________, has an excitatory
    effect on skeletal muscle, causing it to contract
  34. The electrical impulse generated by a muscle cell
    membrane is transmitted to the sarcoplasmic reticulum by ________.
    T (transverse) tubules
  35. In the
    absence of calcium, myosin cannot contact actin because of the presence of the
    ________ covering the myosin binding site of actin.
    troponin-tropomyosin complex
  36. The most common reason that muscle fatigues is the
    lack of enough ________ to meet the metabolic demands placed on the muscle
  37. The ability to maintain an upright position is due to
    ________ (isotonic/isometric) muscle contractions
  38. As the rate of stimulation of motor units of a muscle
    increases, muscle force increases. This process is known as ________.
  39. The mechanical force that is generated when a muscle
    contracts is known as ________.
    muscle tension
  40. According to the ________ principle, a muscle cell
    will contract completely when stimulated by a motor neuron
  41. The
    swinging of a tennis racket is a brief, high-intensity activity that requires the
    contraction of ________ fibers.
  42. Cells in cardiac muscle that determine the rate of
    contraction are ________ cells.
  43. Stem cells in red bone marrow give rise to ________
    and ________ cells
    red, white
  44. ) Ligaments attach ________ to bone.
  45. The end of a long bone is known as the ________.
  46. ________ forms the embryonic structures that later become
    Hylaine cartilage
  47. Trabeculae are located in ________ bone.
  48. outer surface of a bone is covered with a tough
    connective tissue called the ________.
  49. The process by which the cartilage of fetal bones is
    gradually replaced with bone tissue is

  50. Cells that produce cartilage are ________.
  51. The region of a long bone where cartilage is produced
    as a model for lengthening bone is the ________.
    :  growth plate
  52. When bones undergo repair, the process begins with the
    formation of a blood clot known as
  53. The blood calcium level is regulated by two hormones:
    ________ causes an increase in blood calcium, while ________ causes a decrease
    in blood calcium
    parathyroid hormone, calcitonin
  54. The coccyx is classified as a ________ structure
    because it no longer has a function
  55. Vertebrae of the spinal cord are separated from each
    other by compressible, flat structures called ________.
    • intervertebral disks
  56. Immovable joints such as those found between bones of
    the skull are ________ joints.
  57. The coxal bones of the pelvic girdle meet in front at
    the ________, where they are joined by cartilage
    pubic symphysis