BioTest2

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Author:
KinjoSushi
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284139
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BioTest2
Updated:
2014-09-26 05:58:44
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exam2 terms
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  1. The process of reabsorbing water is regulated by
    antidiuretic hormone
  2. Waste products that contain nitrogen are produced by
    cells as they metabolize ________ (proteins/lipids/carbohydrates).
    proteins
  3. Urea is produced by the ________ from ammonia and
    ________.
    liver, carbon dioxide
  4. The mechanism of countercurrent
    exchange predominantly is used by the ________.
    loop of Henle
  5. Urine is moved through the ureter to the bladder by
    muscular contractions known as ________.
    peristalsis
  6. Each kidney is made up of a million ________, the
    functional unit of a kidney
    nephrons
  7. ) The glomerulus (capillary network) of each nephron
    is enclosed by a portion of the nephron known as ________.
    Bowman’s capsule
  8. Nutrients, water, and ions
    reabsorbed by the proximal and distal tubules enter the ________ capillaries.
    peritubular
  9. Sodium is moved out of tubular cells by ________.
    active transport
  10. ADH ________ the permeability of the cells of the
    collecting duct to water.
    increases
  11. Tubular reabsorption occurs when most of the fluid and
    solutes move back into the ________.
    peritubular capillaries
  12. Blood volume is controlled through a negative
    feedback mechanism that involves several intermediate molecules; ________ not
    only stimulates the release of aldosterone but also causes vasoconstriction.
    angiotensin II
  13. The steroid hormone ________ regulates the
    reabsorption of sodium across the collecting duct and distal tubule.
    aldosterone
  14. Three organs in the human body are involved in the
    production of vitamin D; they are the ________, ________, and ________.
    skin, liver, kidneys
  15. Chloride ions move by ________ , following transport
    of sodium out of tubular cells.
    passive diffusion
  16. Important components of food that are needed by the
    body for reproduction, growth, and good health are ________.
    nutrients
  17. Mucosal cells of the stomach secrete ________ , which binds to vitamin B12 so that it can be better absorbed in the small
    intestine.
    intrinsic factor
  18. Region of the small intestine that is NOT associated
    with absorption of nutrients is called ________.
    duodenum
  19. Brush border” refers to ________ found on the surface
    of the epithelial cells of the small intestine.
    microvilli
  20. Lipids are not soluble in
    water, therefore they must be ________ before they can be digested.
    emulsified
  21. The digestion of proteins,
    lipids, and carbohydrates is completed in the ________.
    small intestine
  22. The small, fingerlike structure that extends from the
    cecum is the ________; this organ has no known digestive function
    appendix
  23. Bacteria residing in the large intestine release
    ________, which is absorbed by the human host and used for the process of blood
    clotting
    vitamin K
  24. Gastrin is a hormone secreted by the ________.
    stomach
  25. Natural sugars such as those from fruit and honey
    are classified as ________ (simple/complex).
    simple
  26. Fats that are liquids at room temperature are ________
    (saturated/unsaturated).
    unsaturated
  27. The amount of energy needed by the body to perform
    essential functions such as breathing is the
    basal metabolic rate (BMR)
  28. Maintenance of muscle tone in the walls of the blood
    vessels is an example of ________ muscle contractions
    involuntary
  29. Since contraction of the hamstrings causes the knee to
    bend and contraction of the quadricep causes the knee to extend, these muscles
    are said to be ________.
    antagonistic
  30. Fascicles of a muscle are enclosed in ________ which
    converge to form the ________ that attach the muscle to a bone
    fasciae, tendons
  31. The portion of a myofibril from one Z-line to the next is a
    ________.
    sarcomere
  32. The region where a skeletal muscle
    cell and a motor neuron come into close proximity to one another is the
    ________.
    neuromuscular junction
  33. The neurotransmitter, ________, has an excitatory
    effect on skeletal muscle, causing it to contract
    acetylcholine
  34. The electrical impulse generated by a muscle cell
    membrane is transmitted to the sarcoplasmic reticulum by ________.
    T (transverse) tubules
  35. In the
    absence of calcium, myosin cannot contact actin because of the presence of the
    ________ covering the myosin binding site of actin.
    troponin-tropomyosin complex
  36. The most common reason that muscle fatigues is the
    lack of enough ________ to meet the metabolic demands placed on the muscle
    ATP
  37. The ability to maintain an upright position is due to
    ________ (isotonic/isometric) muscle contractions
    isometric
  38. As the rate of stimulation of motor units of a muscle
    increases, muscle force increases. This process is known as ________.
    summation
  39. The mechanical force that is generated when a muscle
    contracts is known as ________.
    muscle tension
  40. According to the ________ principle, a muscle cell
    will contract completely when stimulated by a motor neuron
    all-or-none
  41. The
    swinging of a tennis racket is a brief, high-intensity activity that requires the
    contraction of ________ fibers.
    fast-twitch
  42. Cells in cardiac muscle that determine the rate of
    contraction are ________ cells.
    pacemaker
  43. Stem cells in red bone marrow give rise to ________
    and ________ cells
    red, white
  44. ) Ligaments attach ________ to bone.
    bone
  45. The end of a long bone is known as the ________.
    epiphysis
  46. ________ forms the embryonic structures that later become
    bone.
    Hylaine cartilage
  47. Trabeculae are located in ________ bone.
    spongy
  48. outer surface of a bone is covered with a tough
    connective tissue called the ________.
    periosteum
  49. The process by which the cartilage of fetal bones is
    gradually replaced with bone tissue is

    ________.
    ossification
  50. Cells that produce cartilage are ________.
    chondroblasts
  51. The region of a long bone where cartilage is produced
    as a model for lengthening bone is the ________.
    :  growth plate
  52. When bones undergo repair, the process begins with the
    formation of a blood clot known as
    hematoma
  53. The blood calcium level is regulated by two hormones:
    ________ causes an increase in blood calcium, while ________ causes a decrease
    in blood calcium
    parathyroid hormone, calcitonin
  54. The coccyx is classified as a ________ structure
    because it no longer has a function
    vestigial
  55. Vertebrae of the spinal cord are separated from each
    other by compressible, flat structures called ________.
    • intervertebral disks
  56. Immovable joints such as those found between bones of
    the skull are ________ joints.
    fibrous
  57. The coxal bones of the pelvic girdle meet in front at
    the ________, where they are joined by cartilage
    pubic symphysis

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