In a lysogenic state, the integrated bacteriophage DNA is referred to as a _____.
After a bacteriophage injects its DNA into a bacterial cell, the empty capsid that remains outside is called a "____ ____."
In 1935, Wendell Stanley _____ viruses and then showed they were still infectious, proving they were not cellular organisms.
HIV contains a prepackaged enzyme called ____ that inserts the viral genes into the host cell chromosome.
____ ____ I refers to oral infections such as cold sores and fever blisters.
Originally taken from cervical cancer patient Henrietta Lacks in 1951, HeLa cells represent a ____ (immortal) cell line used to culture viruses in vitro.
Retroviruses (including HIV) are RNA viruses that contain a enzyme called reverse transcriptase (or __-___ DNA polymerase) to make DNA copies from RNA templates.
During replication of a DNA animal virus, DNA replication occurs in the ___ of the host cell.
____bodies are intracellular areas of virus assembly who's location and appearance are constant and therefore used to identify cells infected with certain viruses, such as rabies and measles.
The ____ virus (which causes "flu") is an enveloped single-stranded RNA virus.
A prion disease such as mad cow may also be called TSE, which stands for transmissible spongiform ____.
A ___ cell line consists of embryonic cells that will grow for 100 or more generations in vitro.
During replication of a DNA animal virus, translation occurs in the ____ phase of the 1-step viral growth curve.
Hepatitis A, also knob as ____ hepatitis, is spread via the fecal-oral route.
Once bacteriophage assembly is completed, the enzyme ____ (coded for by a phage gene) causes lysis of the bacterial cell and release of new viruses.
HIV contains a prepackaged enzyme called ____ that helps in the assembly of new viruses by cleaving the translation proteins.
Some bacteriophages do not kill their host cells immediately, but instead enter a ____ cycle as a prophage; they are replicated along with the host cell DNA and may remain in place for many generations because of a repressor protein.
An example of a latent viral infection in humans is the permanent Hepes infection known as Varicellazoster; Varicella refers to the primary infection of chickenpox and zoster refers to subsequent outbreaks called ____.
___ was a degenerative, fatal neurological prion disease of the Fore tribe of Papua, New Guinea which was perpetuated by cannibalistic rituals.
____ virus is still limited to certain parts of Africa; it causes profuse hemorrhaging at capillary beds throughout the body.
Prions cause fatal diseases that affect the CNS; brain function degenerates as neurons die, and brain tissue develops sponge-like holes; referred to as transmissible _____ encephalopathies.
An example of a ____ viral infection in humans is the permanent Herpes infection knownas Varicellazoster; Varicella refers to the primary infection of chickenpox and zoster refers to subsequent outbreaks called shingles.
Enveloped viruses obtain their envelope by __ out of their host cell.
The protein coat of a virus is called a _____.
Latent animal virus infections are similar to lysogeny in bacteria; here, the viral DNA that is integrated into the host cell DNA is called a ___ instead of a prophage.
An example of a latent viral infection in humans is the permanent Herpes infection knownas Varicellazoster; Varicella refers to the primary infection of _____ and zoster refers to subsequent outbreaks called shingles.
Many different viruses cause the common cold , but ___ cause the really severe colds.
BSE (_____ spongiform encephalopathy) is commonly known as mad cow disease.
Viral replication begins with ____ (attachment) due to chemical recognition of host cell receptors.
In 1935, Wendell _____ crystallized viruses and then showed they were still infectious, proving they were not cellular organisms.
An icosahedron is a ____ with 20 equilateral triangle faces.
Herpes simplex __ is also known as oral herpes; cold sores and fever blisters.
___ ____ refers to the number of new viruses released by lysis of the host cell.
Human ____ virus causes "slapped cheek syndrome."
____ B is also known as "serum" hepatitis; it is spread in the same ways HIV is spread, but it is even more contagion than HIV.
Although cells are measured in micrometers, virus size is measured in units called ___; the average range is 20-300 and this equals .02-.3μm.
Herpes simplex I is also known as ___ herpes; cold sores and fever blisters.
During viral replication, ____ ____ occurs when the capsid proteins and nucleic acids join together.
Soon after viruses were discovered, Martinus ___ named them the Latinized name "contagium vividiim fluidium;" this rather cumbersome name wasn't popular, and was eventually replaced by "virus."
The mumps virus is a single-stranded RNA virus that causes the ___ salivary glands to swell, making swallowing very painful.
RNA viruses code for an enzyme named ___-____ RNA polymerase in order to make RNA copies of their RNA genome.
The "I" in HIV stands for the word _____.
____ simplex II is also known as genital herpes.
A ___ is a empty spot in a lawn of bacteria on an agar plate; it began when a bacteriophage infected a cell, eventually leading to death of a cells in the immediate area.
Double-stranded DNA viruses called ___ viruses cause warts.
The first virus ever "discovered" was the ___ ___ virus, by Dmitri Iwanowski in 1892.
Hepatitis A, also known as "infectious" hepatitis is spread via the ___-___ route.
Soon after viruses were discovered, Martinus Beijerinck named them the Latinized name "contagium _____ fluidium;" this rather cumbersome name wasn't popular, and was eventually replaced by "virus."
In 1892, Dmitri ____ discovered the firs virus, the Tobacco Mosaic Virus.
The ____ virus is a single-stranded RNA virus that causes the parotid salivary glands to swell, making swallowing very painful.
Herpes simplex II is also known as ____herpes.
Prophage genes remain integrated into the bacterial chromosome as long as ___ protein is present; spontaneous induction occurs when UV radiation or chemicals damage the protein so it is no longer present; the prophage genes separate and enter lytic cycle.
____ (or mild) bacteriophages such as the Lambda (λ) phage do not kill their host cells immediately, but instead enter a lysogenic cycle as a prophage; they are replicated along with the host cell DNA and may remain in place for many generations.
A viral capsid is composed of protein subunits called ____.
RNA viruses code for an enzyme named RNA dependent ___ ___ in order to make RNA copies of their RNA genome.
___ ___ disease is a fatal neurological disease caused by a prion; it occurs in cows and humans.