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what percentage of single parent families are headed by women?
what are actual causes of childrens problems in divorce? (not fatherless)
- economic hardships
- lack of parental supervison
- parental alienation syndrome
current state of non marital births?
- increasing among adults
- less social stigma
- high among low income
- 1/3 of all US births
trend of teenage pregnancy
- overall decline
- increase in out of wedlock
describe cycle of poverty
pregnancy-less education-lifetime poverty-teenage pregnancy in next generation-infant disabilities
why are low income women more likely to give birth out of wedlock and remain single?
- men with less or no money
- expectation of increased burden
- want to marry if it leads to financial stability
what is child abuse?
physical or mental injury of a child by a person who is supposed to be responsible for the childs welfare
what is the most frequent form of child abuse?
what is intimate partner violence?
violence between intimate couples
what is the porportion of women among intimate partner violence?
five factors in domestic violence
- misuse of physical punishment
- social isolation
- alcohol used as excuse
- coming from an abusive family
is there a direct causal relationship of family violence and alcohol, coming from an abusive family, poverty?
recognized violation of legal statute
norms formalized by the political authority
two major categories of crime
what are the three types of crime statistics?
- National Crime Victimization Survey
- Self Report Offender Surveys
Explain the UCR
Index crimes- murder, rape, robbery, assault, burglary, auto theft, arson, larceny
Non Index crimes - all others
# of crimes committed per 100,000 population
steady decline since 1992
Shortcomings- reported not equal to committed, emphasis on crimes involving violence and property,
explain National crime victims survey
conducted by DOJ
100,000 random households
victims background, relationship to offender, degree of harm, 7/10 go unreported
shortcomings - less reliable data on offenders, responses based on recall, truthful?, no data on victimless crimes
explain self report offender survey
- population w/ known police record
- society's selection of criminals
define index crimes & non index crimes
Index - murder, rape, robbery, burglary, auto theft, arson, larceny, assault
Non Index - all others
define crime rate
number of index crimes per 100,000 pop
define crime clock
how often index crimes are committed
two major factors in the recent decline of crime rate?
demography- less % of people less than 26 yoa
Expansion of economy
four index crimes that are "violent crimes"
murder, rape, robbery, assault
profile of victims and offenders of violent crimes
male-young-black-intra-racial crimes- lower social class - unemployed - urban - family members
victims and offenders of burglary
- blacks and hispanics
- lower class
- rental property
- offenders are in teens to early twenties
what is identity theft?
use of someones ID to obtain credit
what is white collar crime?
fraud, identity theft, embezzelment,
committed by mid & upper class
define occupational crime
- committed by people in the course of their employment or normal business activity
- motivated by individual gain
define corporate crime
- committed by corporate employees on behalf of the corporation and with it's support
- interest in max profit at the expense of consumers, employees, and society
three negative consequences of white collar crime?
- great economic impact = or > street crimes
- social disruption and instability
- harmful to health and environment
define victimless crime
no one suffers directly, a legislation of morality
two functions of decriminalization
- cost managment (45-50k per prisoner)
- stimulates organized crime
Four functions of the criminal justice system and which serves the basis of the system?
deterrence, incapacitation, rehabilitation, retribution
describe the concept of rational choice
- behavior based on individual choice / free will
- deterred when perception of cost > reward
what is punishment?
delivery of aversive consequences in order to decrease some behavior
two conditions under which punishment becomes more effective?
- must be severe, swift, and consistent
- must be perceived as fair- w/i norms and equally applied- otherwise anger and resentment
five problems with harsher punishments (get tough measures)
- clogged system
- crowded prisons
- provide learning opportunities
- not aversive to career criminals
- impossible to measure deterrence rate
what is incapacitation and it's purpose?
imposing restrictions on freedom of offender
lower recidivism rates
what is rehabilitation and its purpose?
reforming the offender by providing the skills and attitudes that make returning to a law abiding life possible
application of revenge on behalf of the victim
paying for the damage
how does strain theory explain deviance?
crime is outcome of imbalance in social system
legitimate means for acceptable cultural goals
illegitimate means for acceptable cultural goals
compulsive adherence to legitimate means without goals
withdrawal from goals and means (homeless people)
pursuit of non conventional goals with non conventional means
how does control theory explain deviance?
humans are deviant by default - we come to conform to rules by bonding with society
four sources of bonding to society?
- attachement - affection to others
- committment - the stake you have in society
- involvment - busy in conventional activities
- belief - sharing values and morals with others
how does labeling theory explain deviance?
deviance is by social construction
four steps in labeling process
- primary deviance - initial norm violation
- labeling - imposition of deviant identity
- stigmatizaion - public derogation, blocking opportunities to play legitimate roles
- self fulfilling prophecy - you behave the way others expect you to behave
- secondary deviance - persistent deviant behavior
- retrospective labeling - reinterpretation of past behavior based on present label
why youth unemployment leads to urban crime according to strain theory?
youth unemployment leads to cultural dislocation by blocking of legitimate economic opportunities
most significant factor behind high incarceration rate?
drug sentencing- drug related offenses defined as felonies
what is medicalization?
treating drug use as a health issue and not a crime
three stages for gaining and restoring social order?
- policing coupled with community involvment - community friendly policing
- restoration of social disorganization - urban decay and disorder
- opening opportunity structure - education and full employment policies