Microbiology

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Author:
kaori
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284181
Filename:
Microbiology
Updated:
2014-10-04 23:40:18
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Viruses Prions
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Viruses Prions
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  1. In a lysogenic state, the integrated bacteriophage DNA is referred to as a ____.
    Prophage
  2. After a bacteriophage injects its DNA into a bacterial cell, the empty capsid that remains outside is called a "____ ____."
    Ghost Phage
  3. In 1935, Wendell Stanley ____ viruses and then showed they were still infectious, proving they were not cellular organisms.
    Crystallized
  4. HIV contains a prepackaged enzyme called ____ that inserts the viral genes into the host cell chromosome.
    Integrase
  5. ___ ___ I refers to oral infections such as cold sores and fever blisters.
    Herpes Simplex
  6. Originally taken from cervical cancer patient Henrietta Lacks in 1951, HeLa cells represent a ___ (immortal) cell line used to culture viruses in vitro.
    Continuous
  7. Retroviruses (including HIV) are RNA viruses that contain an enzyme called reverse transcriptase (or ___-____ DNA polymerase) to make DNA copies from RNA templates.
    RNA- Dependent
  8. During replication of a DNA animal virus, DNA replication occurs in the ___ of the host cell.
    Nucleus
  9. ___bodies are intracellular areas of virus assembly whose location and appearance are constant and therefore used to identify cells infected with certain viruses, such as rabies and measles.
    Inclustion
  10. The ___ virus (which causes "flu") is an enveloped single-stranded RNA virus.
    Influenza
  11. A prion disease such as mad cow may also be called TSE, which stands for transmissible spongiform _____.
    Enecephalopathies
  12. A ___ cell line consists of embryonic cells that will grow 100 or more generations in vitro.
    Secondary
  13. During replication of a DNA animal virus, translation occurs in the ___ of the host cell.
    Cytoplasm
  14. Nucleic acid replication, transcription and translation all occur during the ___ phase of the 1-step viral growth curve.
    Synthesis
  15. Hepatitis A, also known as ___ hepatitis, is spread via the fecal-oral route.
    Infectious
  16. Once bacteriophage assembly is completed, the enzyme ____ (coded for by a phage gene) cases lysis of the bacterial cell and release of new viruses.
    Lysozyme
  17. HIV contains a prepackaged enzyme called ____ that helps in the assembly of new viruses b cleaving the translated proteins.
    Protease
  18. Some bacteriophages do not kill their host cells immediately, but instead enter a ___ cycle as a prophage; they are replicated along with the host cell DNA and may remain in place for many generations because of repressor protein.
    Lysogenic
  19. An example of a lateen viral infection in humans is the permanent Herpes infection known as Varicellazoster; Varicella refers to the primary infection of chickenpox and zoster refers to subsequent outbreaks called____.
    Shingles
  20. ___ was a degenerative, fatal neurological prion disease of the Fore tribe of Papua, New Guinea which was perpetuated by cannibalistic rituals.
    Kuru
  21. ___ virus is still limited to certain parts of Africa; it causes profuse hemorrhaging at capillary beds throughout the body.
    Ebola
  22. Prions cause fatal diseases that affect the CNA; brain function degenerates and neurons die, and brain tissue developed sponge-like holes; referred to as transmissible ____ encephalopathies.
    Spongiform
  23. An example of a ___ viral infection in humans is the permanent Herpes infection known as VaricellaZoster; Varicella refers to the primary infection of chickenpox and zoster refers to subsequent outbreaks called shingles.
    Latent
  24. Enveloped viruses obtain their envelope by ___ out of their host cell.
    Budding
  25. The protein coat of a virus is called a ___.
    Caspid
  26. Latent animal virus infections are similar to lysogeny in bacteria; here, the viral DNA that is integrated into the host cell DNA is called ____ instead of a prophage.
    Provirus
  27. An example of a latent viral infection in humans is the permanent Herpes infection known as VaricellaZoster; Varicella refers to the primary infection of _____ and zoster refers to subsequent outbreaks called shingles.
    Chickenpox
  28. Many different viruses cause the common cold, but ____ cause the really severe colds.
    Adenoviruses
  29. BSE (_____ spongiform encephalopathy) is commonly known as mad cow disease.
    Bovine
  30. Viral replication begins with ____ (attachment) due to chemical recognition of host cell receptors.
    Adsorption
  31. In 1935, Wendell _____ crystallized viruses and then showed they were still infectious, proving they were not cellular organisms.
    Stanley
  32. An icosahedron is a ___ with 20 equilateral triangle faces.
    Polygon
  33. Herpes simplex ___ is also known as oral herpes; cold sores and fever blisters.
    I
  34. ____ ___ refers to the number of new viruses released by lysis of the host cell.
    Burst Size
  35. Human ___ virus cases "slapped cheek syndrome."
    Parvo
  36. ____ B is also known as "serum" hepatitis; it is spread in the same way HIV is spread, but it is even more contagious than HIV
    Hepatitis
  37. Although cells are measured in micrometers, virus size is measured in units called _____; the average range is 20-300 and this equals .02-.3μm.
    Nanometers
  38. Herpes simplex I is also known as ____ herpes; cold sores and fever blisters.
    Oral
  39. Durin viral replication, _____ _____ occurs when the capsid protein and nucleic acids join together.
    Spontaneous Assembly
  40. Soon after viruses were discovered, Martinus ____ named them Latinized name "contagium vividiim fluidium;" this rather cumbersome name wasn't popular, and was eventually replaced by "virus."
    Beijerinck
  41. The mumps virus is a single-stranded RNA virus that causes the ___ salivary glands to swell, making swallowing very painful.
    Parotid
  42. RNA virus code for an enzyme named ____-____ RNA polymerase in order to make RNA copies of their RNA genome.
    RNA- dependent
  43. The "I" in HIV stand for the word ___.
    Immunodeficiency
  44. ____ simplex I is also known as oral herpes; cold sores and fever blisters.
    Herpes
  45. A ___ is an empty spot in a lawn of bacteria on a agar place; it began when bacteriophage infected a cell, eventually leading to death of all cells in the immediate area.
    Plaque
  46. Double-stranded DNA virus called ____ viruses cause warts.
    Papilloma
  47. The first virus ever "discovered" was the ____ ___ virus, by Dmitri Iwanowski in 1892.
    Tobacco Mosaic
  48. Hepatitis A, also known as "infectious" hepatitis, is spread via the ___-___ route.
    Fecal-Oral
  49. Soon after viruses were discovered, Martinus Beijerinck named them Latinized name "contagium _____ fluidium;" this rather cumbersome name wasn't popular, and was eventually replaced by "virus."
    Vividiim
  50. In 1892, Dmitri ____ discovered the first virus, the Tobacco Mosaic Virus.
    Iwanowski
  51. The ____ virus is a single-stranded RNA virus that causes the parotid salivary glands to swell, making swallowing very painful.
    Mumps
  52. The ___ virus caused smallpox; it has been eradicated from all human population since 1979.
    Variola
  53. Herpes simplex II is also known as ____ herpes.
    Genital
  54. Prophage gene remain integrated into the bacterial chromosome as long as ____ protein is present; spontaneous induction occurs when UV radiation or chemicals damage the protein so it is no longer present; the prophage genes separate and enter a lytic cycle.
    Repressor
  55. _____ (or mild) bacteriophages such as the Lambda (λ) phage do not kill their host cells immediately, but instead enter lysogenic cycle as a prophage; they are replicated along with the host cell DNA and may remain in place for many generations.
    Temperate
  56. A viral capsid is composed of protein subunits called ____.
    Capsomere
  57. RNA viruses code for a enzyme named RNA dependent ____ ____ in order to make NRA copies of their RNA genome.
    RNA- Polymerase
  58. ____ _____ disease is a fatal neurological disease caused by a prion; it occurs in cows and humans.
    Mad Cow
  59. The word virus means "____" in Latin.
    Poison
  60. An example of a lateen viral infection in humans is the permanent Herpes infection known as ____-____; Varicella refers to the primary infection of chickenpox and zoster refers to subsequent outbreaks called shingles.
    Varicella-Zoster
  61. Yellowing of the skin, known as ____ is a common sign of hepatitis, which damages the liver.
    Jaundice
  62. Some viral capsid or envelopes contain projecting protein ____ that aid in attachment to the host cell.
    Spikes
  63. RNA animal viruses undergo the synthesis phase of replication in the___ of the host cell.
    Cytoplasm
  64. Animal viruses with a membrane cover derived from the host cell called ____; those without are term naked.
    Enveloped
  65. Cervical cancer cells originally taken from Henrietta Lacks in 1951 known as ___ cels, represent a continuous (immortal) cell line still used to culture viruses.
    HeLa
  66. T-even bacteriophages are termed ____ because they undergo a lytic cycle that destroys the cell in 20-40 minutes.
    Virulent
  67. Lysozyme is an enzyme coded by bacteriophage DNA; it causes _____ (rupture) of the host cell wall when viral replication is complete.
    Lysis
  68. ____ _____ II refers to sexually transmitted genital infection.
    Herpes Simplex
  69. The ___ phase of the lytic cycle starts with adsorption and continues through synthesis.
    Eclipse
  70. Human parvovirus causes ____ ___ syndrome.
    Slapping Cheek
  71. ____ is a fatal neurological disease caused by a prion that occurs in sheep and goats.
    Scrapie
  72. Although many different viruses cause the common cold, most colds are caused by ____.
    Rhinovirus
  73. T-even bacteriophages (such as T4) are termed virulent because they undergo a ____ cycle that destroys the cell in 20-40 minutes.
    Lytic
  74. A viral capsid is composed of ____ subunits called capsomeres.
    Protein
  75. Reverse transcriptase is also known as RNA dependent ____ ____.
    DNA- Polymerase
  76. Lysogenized bacteria contain integrated bacteriophage genes (prophage) and are immune to further viral attack; this is referred to as lysogenic ___; Example of lysogenized bacteria genes include Corynebacterium diphtheria, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Clostridium botulinum.
    Conversion
  77. An ___ is polyhedron with 20 equilateral triangle faces; it is a common shape for viral capsids.
    Icosahedron
  78. ____ refers to the transfer of bacterial DNA from one cell to another by means of a "faulty" bacteriophage; this process results in increased genetic variability for bacteria.
    Transduction
  79. A ____ (such as HIV) is an RNA virus that contains reverse transcriptase (also called RNA- dependent- DNA-polyermase) to make DNA copies from RNA templates.
    Retrovirus
  80. ____ ___ refers to the length of time from bacteriophage adsorption to release by lysis; average 20-40 minutes.
    Burst Time
  81. During replication of animal viruses, ___ occurs between penetration and synthesis; it involves the removal of the protein capsid to release the viral nucleic acid.
    Uncoating
  82. ___ ____ disease is a fatal neurological disease of humans caused by a prion; it is estimated to affect one of every one million people between the ages of 40 and 65; death occurs 3-24 months after the onset of symptoms.
    Creutzfeldt Jakob
  83. The Variola virus caused _____; it has been eradicated from all human populations since 1979.
    Smallpox
  84. Bacteriophages accomplish ____ by injecting their DNA (like a hypodermic needle) into the bacterial cell, leaving an empty capsid called a "ghost phage" outside.
    Penetration
  85. When animal viruses are grown in the laboratory, ____ effects such as abnormal cell morphology, plaques in tissue culture, or characteristically stained cellular areas called inclusion bodies indicate the active presence of the virus.
    Cytopathic
  86. The animal host cell enables virus ____ by receptor mediated endocytosis.
    Penetration
  87. ____ bacteria contain viral DNA in the form of a prophage.
    Lysogenized
  88. A retrovirus (such as HIV) is an RNA virus that contains ____ ____ (also called RNA-dependent - DNA-polymerase) to make DNA copies from RNA templates.
    Reverse Transcriptase
  89. The ____ _____ ____ was started in the early 1950s to raise money for polio vaccine research.
    March of Dimes
  90. DNA animal viruses undergo spontaneous assembly in the ____ of the host cell.
    Nucleus
  91. ____ ____ disease is a fatal neurological disease caused by a prion; it occurs in deer and elk.
    Chronic Wasting
  92. The ___ virus causes fatal hydrophobia in mammals.
    Rabies
  93. It is necessary to use an ____ microscope to actually see viruses.
    Electron
  94. Soon after viruses were discovered, Martinus Beijerinck named them Latinized name "_____ vividium fluidium;" this rather cumbersome name wasn't popular, and was eventually replaced by "virus."
    Contagium
  95. ____ are self-replicating proteinaceous infectious agent without nucleic acid that causes fatal neurological disease; brain function degenerates as neurons die, and the brain develops sponge-like holes.
    Prions
  96. An elongated capsid is also called ___ or tubular; Tobacco Mosaic Virus has this morphology.
    Helical
  97. Transduction refers to the transfer of bacterial DNA from one cell to another by means of a "____" bacteriophage containing bacterial genes, not viral genes; this process results in increased genetic variability for bacteria.
    Faulty
  98. The ____ virus causes a paralytic disease by damaging myelin sheaths of motor neurons.
    Polio
  99. A ___ is a virus that infects bacteria.
    Bacteriophage
  100. Instead of the typical growth curve of all living organisms (lag,log,stationary and death phases), viruses exhibit a ___ ___ growth curve.
    1-Step
  101. Herpes simplex ___ is also known as genital herpes.
    II
  102. DNA animal viruses undergo transcription in the _____ of the host cell.
    Nucleus
  103. The complex morphology of a bacteriophage capsid is called ____ because the head is a polyhedron and the tail assembly is helical.
    Combination
  104. To culture animal viruses, a ___ cell line consists of mature cells that will only divide for a few generations in vitro.
    Primary
  105. In the lytic cycle, the first enzyme produced during the synthesis stage is ____, which destroys the bacterial chromosome.
    Nuclease
  106. Soon after viruses were discovered, Martinus Beijerinck named them Latinized name "contagium vividium _____;" this rather cumbersome name wasn't popular, and was eventually replaced by "virus."
    Fluidium
  107. Inclusion bodies observed in brain cells infected with the rabies virus are called ____ bodies.
    Negri
  108. Once bacteriophage assembly is completed, an enzyme called lysozyme (coded by a phage gene) causes ____ of the bacterial cell.
    Lysis
  109. Animal viruses with a membrane cover derived from the host cell are called enveloped; those without are termed "____."
    Naked

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