In a lysogenic state, the integrated bacteriophage DNA is referred to as a ____.
After a bacteriophage injects its DNA into a bacterial cell, the empty capsid that remains outside is called a "____ ____."
In 1935, Wendell Stanley ____ viruses and then showed they were still infectious, proving they were not cellular organisms.
HIV contains a prepackaged enzyme called ____ that inserts the viral genes into the host cell chromosome.
___ ___ I refers to oral infections such as cold sores and fever blisters.
Originally taken from cervical cancer patient Henrietta Lacks in 1951, HeLa cells represent a ___ (immortal) cell line used to culture viruses in vitro.
Retroviruses (including HIV) are RNA viruses that contain an enzyme called reverse transcriptase (or ___-____ DNA polymerase) to make DNA copies from RNA templates.
During replication of a DNA animal virus, DNA replication occurs in the ___ of the host cell.
___bodies are intracellular areas of virus assembly whose location and appearance are constant and therefore used to identify cells infected with certain viruses, such as rabies and measles.
The ___ virus (which causes "flu") is an enveloped single-stranded RNA virus.
A prion disease such as mad cow may also be called TSE, which stands for transmissible spongiform _____.
A ___ cell line consists of embryonic cells that will grow 100 or more generations in vitro.
During replication of a DNA animal virus, translation occurs in the ___ of the host cell.
Nucleic acid replication, transcription and translation all occur during the ___ phase of the 1-step viral growth curve.
Hepatitis A, also known as ___ hepatitis, is spread via the fecal-oral route.
Once bacteriophage assembly is completed, the enzyme ____ (coded for by a phage gene) cases lysis of the bacterial cell and release of new viruses.
HIV contains a prepackaged enzyme called ____ that helps in the assembly of new viruses b cleaving the translated proteins.
Some bacteriophages do not kill their host cells immediately, but instead enter a ___ cycle as a prophage; they are replicated along with the host cell DNA and may remain in place for many generations because of repressor protein.
An example of a lateen viral infection in humans is the permanent Herpes infection known as Varicellazoster; Varicella refers to the primary infection of chickenpox and zoster refers to subsequent outbreaks called____.
___ was a degenerative, fatal neurological prion disease of the Fore tribe of Papua, New Guinea which was perpetuated by cannibalistic rituals.
___ virus is still limited to certain parts of Africa; it causes profuse hemorrhaging at capillary beds throughout the body.
Prions cause fatal diseases that affect the CNA; brain function degenerates and neurons die, and brain tissue developed sponge-like holes; referred to as transmissible ____ encephalopathies.
An example of a ___ viral infection in humans is the permanent Herpes infection known as VaricellaZoster; Varicella refers to the primary infection of chickenpox and zoster refers to subsequent outbreaks called shingles.
Enveloped viruses obtain their envelope by ___ out of their host cell.
The protein coat of a virus is called a ___.
Latent animal virus infections are similar to lysogeny in bacteria; here, the viral DNA that is integrated into the host cell DNA is called ____ instead of a prophage.
An example of a latent viral infection in humans is the permanent Herpes infection known as VaricellaZoster; Varicella refers to the primary infection of _____ and zoster refers to subsequent outbreaks called shingles.
Many different viruses cause the common cold, but ____ cause the really severe colds.
BSE (_____ spongiform encephalopathy) is commonly known as mad cow disease.
Viral replication begins with ____ (attachment) due to chemical recognition of host cell receptors.
In 1935, Wendell _____ crystallized viruses and then showed they were still infectious, proving they were not cellular organisms.
An icosahedron is a ___ with 20 equilateral triangle faces.
Herpes simplex ___ is also known as oral herpes; cold sores and fever blisters.
____ ___ refers to the number of new viruses released by lysis of the host cell.
Human ___ virus cases "slapped cheek syndrome."
____ B is also known as "serum" hepatitis; it is spread in the same way HIV is spread, but it is even more contagious than HIV
Although cells are measured in micrometers, virus size is measured in units called _____; the average range is 20-300 and this equals .02-.3μm.
Herpes simplex I is also known as ____ herpes; cold sores and fever blisters.
Durin viral replication, _____ _____ occurs when the capsid protein and nucleic acids join together.
Soon after viruses were discovered, Martinus ____ named them Latinized name "contagium vividiim fluidium;" this rather cumbersome name wasn't popular, and was eventually replaced by "virus."
The mumps virus is a single-stranded RNA virus that causes the ___ salivary glands to swell, making swallowing very painful.
RNA virus code for an enzyme named ____-____ RNA polymerase in order to make RNA copies of their RNA genome.
The "I" in HIV stand for the word ___.
____ simplex I is also known as oral herpes; cold sores and fever blisters.
A ___ is an empty spot in a lawn of bacteria on a agar place; it began when bacteriophage infected a cell, eventually leading to death of all cells in the immediate area.
Double-stranded DNA virus called ____ viruses cause warts.
The first virus ever "discovered" was the ____ ___ virus, by Dmitri Iwanowski in 1892.
Hepatitis A, also known as "infectious" hepatitis, is spread via the ___-___ route.
Soon after viruses were discovered, Martinus Beijerinck named them Latinized name "contagium _____ fluidium;" this rather cumbersome name wasn't popular, and was eventually replaced by "virus."
In 1892, Dmitri ____ discovered the first virus, the Tobacco Mosaic Virus.
The ____ virus is a single-stranded RNA virus that causes the parotid salivary glands to swell, making swallowing very painful.
The ___ virus caused smallpox; it has been eradicated from all human population since 1979.
Herpes simplex II is also known as ____ herpes.
Prophage gene remain integrated into the bacterial chromosome as long as ____ protein is present; spontaneous induction occurs when UV radiation or chemicals damage the protein so it is no longer present; the prophage genes separate and enter a lytic cycle.
_____ (or mild) bacteriophages such as the Lambda (λ) phage do not kill their host cells immediately, but instead enter lysogenic cycle as a prophage; they are replicated along with the host cell DNA and may remain in place for many generations.
A viral capsid is composed of protein subunits called ____.
RNA viruses code for a enzyme named RNA dependent ____ ____ in order to make NRA copies of their RNA genome.
____ _____ disease is a fatal neurological disease caused by a prion; it occurs in cows and humans.
The word virus means "____" in Latin.
An example of a lateen viral infection in humans is the permanent Herpes infection known as ____-____; Varicella refers to the primary infection of chickenpox and zoster refers to subsequent outbreaks called shingles.
Yellowing of the skin, known as ____ is a common sign of hepatitis, which damages the liver.
Some viral capsid or envelopes contain projecting protein ____ that aid in attachment to the host cell.
RNA animal viruses undergo the synthesis phase of replication in the___ of the host cell.
Animal viruses with a membrane cover derived from the host cell called ____; those without are term naked.
Cervical cancer cells originally taken from Henrietta Lacks in 1951 known as ___ cels, represent a continuous (immortal) cell line still used to culture viruses.
T-even bacteriophages are termed ____ because they undergo a lytic cycle that destroys the cell in 20-40 minutes.
Lysozyme is an enzyme coded by bacteriophage DNA; it causes _____ (rupture) of the host cell wall when viral replication is complete.
____ _____ II refers to sexually transmitted genital infection.
The ___ phase of the lytic cycle starts with adsorption and continues through synthesis.
Human parvovirus causes ____ ___ syndrome.
____ is a fatal neurological disease caused by a prion that occurs in sheep and goats.
Although many different viruses cause the common cold, most colds are caused by ____.
T-even bacteriophages (such as T4) are termed virulent because they undergo a ____ cycle that destroys the cell in 20-40 minutes.
A viral capsid is composed of ____ subunits called capsomeres.
Reverse transcriptase is also known as RNA dependent ____ ____.
Lysogenized bacteria contain integrated bacteriophage genes (prophage) and are immune to further viral attack; this is referred to as lysogenic ___; Example of lysogenized bacteria genes include Corynebacterium diphtheria, Streptococcus pyogenes,andClostridium botulinum.
An ___ is polyhedron with 20 equilateral triangle faces; it is a common shape for viral capsids.
____ refers to the transfer of bacterial DNA from one cell to another by means of a "faulty" bacteriophage; this process results in increased genetic variability for bacteria.
A ____ (such as HIV) is an RNA virus that contains reverse transcriptase (also called RNA- dependent- DNA-polyermase) to make DNA copies from RNA templates.
____ ___ refers to the length of time from bacteriophage adsorption to release by lysis; average 20-40 minutes.
During replication of animal viruses, ___ occurs between penetration and synthesis; it involves the removal of the protein capsid to release the viral nucleic acid.
___ ____ disease is a fatal neurological disease of humans caused by a prion; it is estimated to affect one of every one million people between the ages of 40 and 65; death occurs 3-24 months after the onset of symptoms.
The Variola virus caused _____; it has been eradicated from all human populations since 1979.
Bacteriophages accomplish ____ by injecting their DNA (like a hypodermic needle) into the bacterial cell, leaving an empty capsid called a "ghost phage" outside.
When animal viruses are grown in the laboratory, ____ effects such as abnormal cell morphology, plaques in tissue culture, or characteristically stained cellular areas called inclusion bodies indicate the active presence of the virus.
The animal host cell enables virus ____ by receptor mediated endocytosis.
____ bacteria contain viral DNA in the form of a prophage.
A retrovirus (such as HIV) is an RNA virus that contains ____ ____ (also called RNA-dependent - DNA-polymerase) to make DNA copies from RNA templates.
The ____ _____ ____ was started in the early 1950s to raise money for polio vaccine research.
March of Dimes
DNA animal viruses undergo spontaneous assembly in the ____ of the host cell.
____ ____ disease is a fatal neurological disease caused by a prion; it occurs in deer and elk.
The ___ virus causes fatal hydrophobia in mammals.
It is necessary to use an ____ microscope to actually see viruses.
Soon after viruses were discovered, Martinus Beijerinck named them Latinized name "_____ vividium fluidium;" this rather cumbersome name wasn't popular, and was eventually replaced by "virus."
____ are self-replicating proteinaceous infectious agent without nucleic acid that causes fatal neurological disease; brain function degenerates as neurons die, and the brain develops sponge-like holes.
An elongated capsid is also called ___ or tubular; Tobacco Mosaic Virus has this morphology.
Transduction refers to the transfer of bacterial DNA from one cell to another by means of a "____" bacteriophage containing bacterial genes, not viral genes; this process results in increased genetic variability for bacteria.
The ____ virus causes a paralytic disease by damaging myelin sheaths of motor neurons.
A ___ is a virus that infects bacteria.
Instead of the typical growth curve of all living organisms (lag,log,stationary and death phases), viruses exhibit a ___ ___ growth curve.
Herpes simplex ___ is also known as genital herpes.
DNA animal viruses undergo transcription in the _____ of the host cell.
The complex morphology of a bacteriophage capsid is called ____ because the head is a polyhedron and the tail assembly is helical.
To culture animal viruses, a ___ cell line consists of mature cells that will only divide for a few generations in vitro.
In the lytic cycle, the first enzyme produced during the synthesis stage is ____, which destroys the bacterial chromosome.
Soon after viruses were discovered, Martinus Beijerinck named them Latinized name "contagium vividium _____;" this rather cumbersome name wasn't popular, and was eventually replaced by "virus."
Inclusion bodies observed in brain cells infected with the rabies virus are called ____ bodies.
Once bacteriophage assembly is completed, an enzyme called lysozyme (coded by a phage gene) causes ____ of the bacterial cell.
Animal viruses with a membrane cover derived from the host cell are called enveloped; those without are termed "____."