FM 4-25.11 Frist Aid
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What is Self Aid
Emergency treatment one applies to oneself
What is the quickest way to splint a broken leg?
Tie the broken leg securely to the unbroken leg
How many pressure points, which can be used to control bleeding with fingers, thumbs or hands are there on the human body?
What is the object of first aid?
- 1. To stop bleeding
- 2. Overcome shock
- 3. Relieve pain
- 4. Prevent infection
What FM covers first aid for soldiers?
When would you not remove a casualties clothing to expose a wound?
If in a chemical environment or if the clothing is stuck to the wound
How high should an injured limb be elevated above the heart to control bleeding?
2 to 4 inches
What are the lifesaving steps? (The ABC's of medical treatment)
1. Open the airway and restore breathing2. Stop the bleeding / Protect the wound3. Prevent shock
When applying splint, where should the bandages be tied?
The bandages should be tied with knots against the splint
Name 3 categories of heat injuries
- 1. Heat cramps
- 2. Heat exhaustion
- 3. Heat stroke
What are the signs and symptoms of heat cramps?
1. Cramping in the extremities (arms and legs)2. Abdominal Cramps (stomach)3. Excessive Sweating
What is the treatment for heat cramps?
- Move the casualty to a cool, shady area or improvise shade if none is available.
- Loosen his clothing.
- Have him slowly drink at least one canteen full of cool water.
- Seek medical assistance should cramps continue.
What are the signs and symptoms of heat exhaustion?
- 1. Excessive sweating with pale, moist, cool skin
- 2. Headache
- 3. Weakness
- 4. Dizziness
- 5. Loss of appetite
- 6. Cramping
- 7. Nausea (with or without vomiting)
- 8. Urge to defecate
- 9. Chills (Gooseflesh)
- 10. Rapid Breathing
- 11. Tingling of Hands/Feet
- 12. Confusion
What would the treatment be for heat exhaustion?
- 1. Move the casualty to a cool, shady area or improvise shade if none is available.
- 2. Loosen or remove his clothing and boots (unless in a chemical environment); pour water on him and fan him.
- 3. Have him slowly drink at least one canteen of water.
- 4. Elevate his legs.
- 5. If possible, the casualty should not participate in strenuous activity for the remainder of the day.
- 6. Monitor the casualty until the symptoms are gone, or medical assistance arrives
What are the signs and symptoms of heat stroke?
- 1. Skin is red, hot and dry
- 2. Weakness
- 3. Dizziness
- 4. Confusion
- 5. Headaches
- 6. Seizures
- 7. Nausea
- 8. Stomach pains or cramps
- 9. Respiration and pulse may be rapid and weak.
- 10. Unconsciousness and collapse may occur suddenly.
What would the treatment be for heat stroke?
- Cool casualty immediately by
- —Moving him to a cool, shady area or improvising shade if none is available.
- Loosening or removing his clothing.
- Spraying or pouring water on him; fanning him to permit the coolant effect of evaporation.
- Massaging his extremities and skin, which increases the blood flow to those body areas, thus aiding the coolingprocess.
- Elevating his legs.
- Having him slowly drink at least one canteen full of water if he is conscious.
- Seek medical assistance immediately
If a casualty were suspected of having a neck/spinal injury or severe head trauma, which method would you use
for opening an airway?
The jaw thrust technique, because in most cases it can be done without extending the neck
What are two basic types of fractures?
- 1. Open (compound)
- 2. Closed (simple)
What are some signs of a closed fracture?
- Unusual body position.
- Check for pulse.
How tight should tourniquet be?
Tightened until the bright red bleeding has stopped.
What are the three types of bleeding?
- 1. Arterial- Blood is bright red and will spurt
- 2. Venous- Blood is dark red and flows in a steady stream
- 3. Capillary- Blood oozes from the wound
Name 4 common points for checking pulse
- 1. Carotid- The side of the neck
- 2. Femoral- The groin
- 3. Radial- The wrist
- 4. Posterial Tibial- Ankle
What are some signs/symptoms of shock?
- Clammy skin (cool, pale and damp)
- Restlessness and nervousness
- Loss of blood
- Fast breathing
- Nausea or vomiting
- Blotched or bluish skin
- Often perspires freelyMay pass out.
What is the treatment for shock?
“P.E.L.C.R.N.” (Pronounced Pell-Crin)
- 1 Position the casualty on their back
- 2 Elevate the Legs
- 3 Loosen clothing at neck waist or wherever it is binding
- 4 Climatize (prevent too hot or too cold)
- 5 Reassure (keep the casualty calm)
- 6 Notify medical personnel (Help, Get a medic!!)
Name the four types of burns
- 1. Thermal
- 2. Electrical
- 3. Chemical
- 4. Laser
How long is direct manual pressure applied to control bleeding?
5 to 10 minutes
When should a casualty not be placed in the shock position?
- Head injury
- Abdominal wound
- Fractured (unsplinted) leg
What are the 8 steps in evaluating a casualty?
- Possible concussions (head injuries)
What would you like to do?
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