CH Exam 1

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CH Exam 1
2014-09-28 15:49:44

tamhsc,CH,Exam 1
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  1. Denominator includes numerator
  2. Frequency of a health event in a defined population during a specific period.
  3. Probability an event will occur within a specific period of time.
  4. The number of NEW cases developing in a population at risk during a specific time (divided by population at risk during same time) (multiply by 100).
    Incidence Rate
  5. The risk of developing a disease in an observed population within a specific time.
    Incidence Rate
  6. Proportion of population that develops illness during an outbreak;
    Cumulative effect of incidence rate over a pd of time.
    • Incidence PROPORTION
  7. ALL NEW AND Pre-Existing disease in a population at a particular time (divided by population at risk during same time) (multiply by 100).
    Prevalence Proportion
  8. The number of EXISTING cases divided by the CURRENT population.
    Prevalence Proportion
  9. Measure of morbidity;
    Proportion of ppl exposed to an agent who develop a disease.
    • Attack Rate
    • AKA Incidence Proportion
  10. A factor that must be present or lacking for a disease or condition to develop
  11. A living species capable of being infected or affacted by an agent.
  12. Illustrates the coplex interrelationships of numerous factors interacting to increase or decrease the risk of a disease.
    Web of Causality
  13. Interventions with the purpose of increasing the probability that a person with a disease will have that condition diagnosed early enough that treatment is likely to result in a cure.
    Secondary Prevention
  14. Provides interventions aimed at
    disability limitation and rehabilitation from disease, injury, or disability.
    Tertiary prevention
  15. Interventions that promote health
    and prevent the occurrence of disease, injury, or disability. They are aimed at
    individuals and groups who are susceptible to disease but have no discernible
    Primary Prevention
  16. The precision or repeatability of a
    measure, specifically its consistency from one time of use to another. Three
    major sources of error affect test reliability.
  17. Consistency by the SAME observer.
  18. Consistency from ONE observer to ANOTHER.
  19. The accuracy of a test or
    measurement, how closely it measures what it claims to measure. In a screening
    test, validity is measured by sensitivity and specificity.
  20. A measure of how accurately the
    test identifies those individuals having the condition or trait; the number of
    true positives.
  21. Indicates how accurately the test
    identifies individuals not having the condition or trait; the number of true
  22. __________ is the proportion of persons with a
    positive result who actually have the disease, whereas ___________ is
    the proportion of persons with a negative result who are actually disease free
    • Positivepredictive value
    • Negative predictive value
  23. Describes the distribution of
    health outcomes according to person, place, and time—the who, where, and when of
    disease patterns.
    Descriptive epidemiology
  24. Searches for the determinants of
    the patterns observed—the how
    and why.
    Analytic Epidemiology
  25. The most important predictor of
    overall mortality.
  26. Studies where subjects determined to be
    free of the outcome under investigation are classified according to exposure
    and then followed over time.
    Prospective Cohort studies
  27. In analytic studies,______ refers
    to a group of persons generally sharing some characteristic of interest. They
    are enrolled in a study and followed over time in order to observe some health
  28. ________ allow for calculation of incidence rates andtherefore estimates of risk for disease. Cohort studies may be prospective orretrospective.
    Cohort study designs
  29. _________ epidemiology deals with the factors
    that influence observed patterns of health and disease and increase or decrease
    the risk for adverse outcomes.
  30. ___________ use existing records to
    identify cohorts that may have been exposed in the past. These studies may be
    conducted entirely using past records.
    Retrospectivecohort studies
  31. Subjects are selected based on a
    known outcome status.
    Case-control studies
  32. Given the way subjects are selected for a ________ study, neither incidence nor prevalence can be calculated directly. The odds ratio is a measure of how much more (or less) likely the exposure is to be found among cases than among ________.
    • case-control;
    • controls
  33. A _______ study provides a snapshot of a
    population or group at a particular point in time; subjects are simultaneously
    classified on exposure and outcome status.
  34. One drawback of cross-sectional studies is bias resulting from _______.
    selective survival
  35. These studies are sometimes called prevalence studies because they provide the frequency of existing cases of a disease in a population.
    Cross-sectional studies
  36. In________ studies, only
    aggregate data such as population rates are used.
    An advantage is that readily
    available data are used, making these studies quick and inexpensive to conduct.
    A disadvantage is the “ecological fallacy” (i.e., that associations observed
    for the group may not be true for individuals in the group, or existing
    associations may be hidden by the group data).
  37. An advantage of this study is that readily available data are used, making these studies quick and inexpensive to conduct.
    A disadvantage is the “ecological fallacy” (i.e., that associations observed for the group may not be true for individuals in the group, or existing associations may be hidden by the group data).
  38. In contrast to observational
    studies, in _________ studies the investigator initiates some treatment or intervention that may influence the risk for or course of
    experimental or intervention
  39. Experimental studies include
    ______ trials and _______ trials.
    • clinical
    • community
  40. ________ trials generally are conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a treatment for disease.
  41. In ______ trials, the issue studied is usually health promotion and disease prevention, rather
    than treatment of existing disease.
  42. A systematic error in the estimate
    of an association.
  43. ________ bias results from the way subjects enter a study; it may involve self-selection.
  44. ________ bias is due to misclassification of
    subjects once they are in the study. It is related to how information is
  45. _________ bias results from the relation of the outcome and study factor with some third factor not accounted for.
  46. Method of payment to an agency based on units of service delivered
    retrospective reimbursement
  47. List of health care services with monetary or unit values attached that specifies the amounts third parties must pay for specific services
  48. The diagnosis-related group payment mechanism for reimbursing hospitals for inpatient health care services through medicare
    prospective payment system (PPS)
  49. A statistical measure used to compare health care spending among countries
    gross domestic product (GDP)