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Denominator includes numerator
Frequency of a health event in a defined population during a specific period.
Probability an event will occur within a specific period of time.
The number of NEW cases developing in a population at risk during a specific time (divided by population at risk during same time) (multiply by 100).
The risk of developing a disease in an observed population within a specific time.
Proportion of population that develops illness during an outbreak;
Cumulative effect of incidence rate over a pd of time.
- Incidence PROPORTION
- AKA ATTACK RATE
ALL NEW AND Pre-Existing disease in a population at a particular time (divided by population at risk during same time) (multiply by 100).
The number of EXISTING cases divided by the CURRENT population.
Measure of morbidity;
Proportion of ppl exposed to an agent who develop a disease.
- Attack Rate
- AKA Incidence Proportion
A factor that must be present or lacking for a disease or condition to develop
A living species capable of being infected or affacted by an agent.
Illustrates the coplex interrelationships of numerous factors interacting to increase or decrease the risk of a disease.
Web of Causality
Interventions with the purpose of increasing the probability that a person with a disease will have that condition diagnosed early enough that treatment is likely to result in a cure.
Provides interventions aimed at
disability limitation and rehabilitation from disease, injury, or disability.
Interventions that promote health
and prevent the occurrence of disease, injury, or disability. They are aimed at
individuals and groups who are susceptible to disease but have no discernible
The precision or repeatability of a
measure, specifically its consistency from one time of use to another. Three
major sources of error affect test reliability.
Consistency by the SAME observer.
Consistency from ONE observer to ANOTHER.
The accuracy of a test or
measurement, how closely it measures what it claims to measure. In a screening
test, validity is measured by sensitivity and specificity.
A measure of how accurately the
test identifies those individuals having the condition or trait; the number of
Indicates how accurately the test
identifies individuals not having the condition or trait; the number of true
__________ is the proportion of persons with a
positive result who actually have the disease, whereas ___________ is
the proportion of persons with a negative result who are actually disease free
- Positivepredictive value
- Negative predictive value
Describes the distribution of
health outcomes according to person, place, and time—the who, where, and when of
Searches for the determinants of
the patterns observed—the how
The most important predictor of
Studies where subjects determined to be
free of the outcome under investigation are classified according to exposure
and then followed over time.
Prospective Cohort studies
In analytic studies,______ refers
to a group of persons generally sharing some characteristic of interest. They
are enrolled in a study and followed over time in order to observe some health
________ allow for calculation of incidence rates andtherefore estimates of risk for disease. Cohort studies may be prospective orretrospective.
Cohort study designs
_________ epidemiology deals with the factors
that influence observed patterns of health and disease and increase or decrease
the risk for adverse outcomes.
___________ use existing records to
identify cohorts that may have been exposed in the past. These studies may be
conducted entirely using past records.
Subjects are selected based on a
known outcome status.
Given the way subjects are selected for a ________ study, neither incidence nor prevalence can be calculated directly. The odds ratio is a measure of how much more (or less) likely the exposure is to be found among cases than among ________.
A _______ study provides a snapshot of a
population or group at a particular point in time; subjects are simultaneously
classified on exposure and outcome status.
One drawback of cross-sectional studies is bias resulting from _______.
These studies are sometimes called prevalence studies because they provide the frequency of existing cases of a disease in a population.
In________ studies, only
aggregate data such as population rates are used.
An advantage is that readily
available data are used, making these studies quick and inexpensive to conduct.
A disadvantage is the “ecological fallacy” (i.e., that associations observed
for the group may not be true for individuals in the group, or existing
associations may be hidden by the group data).
An advantage of this study is that readily available data are used, making these studies quick and inexpensive to conduct.
A disadvantage is the “ecological fallacy” (i.e., that associations observed for the group may not be true for individuals in the group, or existing associations may be hidden by the group data).
In contrast to observational
studies, in _________ studies the investigator initiates some treatment or intervention that may influence the risk for or course of
experimental or intervention
Experimental studies include
______ trials and _______ trials.
________ trials generally are conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a treatment for disease.
In ______ trials, the issue studied is usually health promotion and disease prevention, rather
than treatment of existing disease.
A systematic error in the estimate
of an association.
________ bias results from the way subjects enter a study; it may involve self-selection.
________ bias is due to misclassification of
subjects once they are in the study. It is related to how information is
_________ bias results from the relation of the outcome and study factor with some third factor not accounted for.
Method of payment to an agency based on units of service delivered
List of health care services with monetary or unit values attached that specifies the amounts third parties must pay for specific services
The diagnosis-related group payment mechanism for reimbursing hospitals for inpatient health care services through medicare
prospective payment system (PPS)
A statistical measure used to compare health care spending among countries
gross domestic product (GDP)