A&P 1 exam 2 (part 1)

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A&P 1 exam 2 (part 1)
2014-09-27 16:36:13
tissues anatomy fall 2014

Tissues Fall 2014
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  1. four basic types of tissues?
    • epithelium
    • connective tissue
    • muscular tissue
    • nervous tissue
  2. population of similar cells with similar functions
  3. what is included in tissues?
    • cells
    • matrix between cells (intracellular matrix)
  4. what is epithelium subdivided into?
    • covering and lining
    • glandular
  5. associated with a lot of functional vanation, lots of subtypes
    connective tissue
  6. glue that holds everything together
    connective tissue proper
  7. blood tissue?
  8. 4 subtypes of connective tissue?
    • connective tissue proper
    • bone
    • cartilage
    • vascular
  9. 3 types of connective tissue proper?
    • loose connective tissue
    • dense connective tissue
    • fatty connective tissue
  10. names of cells classified by the number of cells in the layer?
    • simple
    • stratified
  11. simple epithelium?
    1 cell thick
  12. stratified epithelium?
    atleast 2 cells thick
  13. how is epithelium classified?
    according to number and shape
  14. 3 possible shapes of epithelium?
    • squamous
    • cuboidal
    • columnar
  15. squamous epithelium?
    cells are flat
  16. cuboidal epithelium?
    cells are taller, like squares
  17. columnar epithelium?
    cells are much taller than wide
  18. how to name epithelium?
    always used shape of cells on outermost layer
  19. acts as boundary between different environments
    layer of epithelium
  20. ex of layer of epithelium?
  21. where can a layer of epithelium be found between?
    • skin and air
    • gut tube and gut lumen
    • trachea and air
  22. specific functions of epithelium?
    • protection
    • secretion and absorption
    • excretion
    • sensory reception
  23. epithelium role of protection?
    skin protects from external environment
  24. epithelium role of excretion?
    filtering process, fluids in blood are extracted the bad stuff
  25. epithelium role of sensory reception?
    monitor info about other environments
  26. ex of sensory reception
    monitors air temperature
  27. single layer of cells and the cells are very flat
    simple squamous
  28. simple squamous is?
    a very thin boundary
  29. where would you want simple squamous?
    where thing pass through, ex. interlining of blood vessels
  30. simple cuboidal ? found?
    • cells are taller
    • found in tubules of kidney
  31. simple columnar? found?
    • cells are taller than wide
    • found in digestive system
  32. simple cilated columnar?
    • lines overducts in uterus
    • cilia help egg, ovum move through
  33. if an epithelial name has ciliated in it than that means?
    it bares cilia in the epithelium
  34. pseudostratified columnar?
    falsely stratified
  35. pseudostratified means?
    epithelium looks stratified, but its not. All cells originate from base, but none are sitting on top of each other
  36. stratified squamous?
    • found places where mechanical damage is at risk
    • **areas of friction
    • ex skin, lining of vagina
  37. stratified columnar?
    • not very common
    •  found in lining of esophagus
  38. transitional stratified epithelium? occurs in?
    • depends on shape of when you look at it, the shape of cell is constantly changing
    • occurs in urinary bladder
  39. surface area and absorption?
    rate of absorption is faster with increase of surface area
  40. found in areas covered by mucus
  41. apical specializations?
    pre-surface with microvilli on it
  42. tiny fingers
  43. immotile , do not move
  44. where are microvilli found? what do they do ?
    • on cells that have absorptive function
    • increase surface area without increasing size of cell
  45. do move, wave back and forth in a coordinated movement
  46. 2 types of apical specializations?
    • microvilli
    • cilia
  47. what are found inside cilia for support?
  48. how are microtubules arranged?
    in pairs - 9 doublets around edge and 2 more in the middle
  49. help to hold mucus in place so it does not slip down on vertical surfaces
  50. support microvilli, keeps them from collapsing
  51. slide up and down against each other so cilia move back and forth
  52. cilia are similar to ?
  53. diff between centrioles and cilia ?
    • centrioles - 9 + 0 arrangement (triplets)
    • cilia - 9 +2 arrangement (doublets)
  54. found between 2 adjacent epithelial cells?
  55. 2 functions of junctional complexes?
    • cell to cell adhesion
    • prevent molecular traffic from slipping between epithelial cells
  56. portals that go between adjacent cells and you get ion flow through it
    gap junctions
  57. what provides for cell to cell communication?
    gap junctions
  58. found on base side of all epithelium?
    basement membrane
  59. only epithelial have?
    basement membrane
  60. basement membrane is aka
    basal lamina
  61. basement membrane?
    • noncellular
    • not penetrated by anything
  62. in ____ epithelium, all cells sit on basal lamina where as in ____ epithelium they do not
    • simple
    • stratified
  63. types of exocrine glands?
    • unicellular
    • multicellular
  64. ex of unicellular exocrine glands?
    goblet cell
  65. specialized to produce and secrete products?
    glandular epithelium
  66. secretory epithelial cells?
  67. deliver products onto body surfaces or into hollow organs?
  68. made of single cell
  69. line digestive system and produce and secrete mucus
    goblet cell
  70. made of many cells, allow glad to sink below surface so it can expand
    multicellular exocrine gland
  71. deliver product by a duct that connects to surface
  72. simple exocrine gland?
    a single duct leading to surface
  73. compound exocrine gland?
    can branch to surface
  74. what are ducts made of?
    nonsecretory epithelium
  75. produce and drop product into circulatory system
    endocrine glands
  76. endocrine glands?
    • affects all cells in body
    • expose all cells in body to there product
  77. endocrine glands can be located?
    anywhere in relation to target because they have a different motive to delivery than exocrine, which has to be close to place of delivery