- moves where?
-when does protein synthesis begin?
- complementary to __.
moves right next to cytoplasm
protein synthesis begins directly after 10-15 codons have been transcribed (almost simultaneous transcription and translation)
complementary to the 3' end/ control sequences important because it makes sure it binds correctly
Why are euk monocistronic?
one gene, one product
we have plenty of genes to waste
one gene--several messages/ products (most is 7 so far)
not a lot of space; so, tehy can't afford to waste anything; Bacteria have to utilize and replicate DNA
Are the genes specific for each other in polycistronic DNA?
one gene might have structural components, proteins for enzymes, etc. --> no net commonality
50S- large subunit
30S- small subunit
16S- main funciton is to make sure the subunits are lined up together
5S: make sure the functional ribosome stays together
Are the measured Svedburg units additive?
- Why aren't there a lot of double-stranded RNA?
double stranded RNA is a characteristic of viruses. So, it is a red flag to the immune system. In nature, the only naturally occurring RNA 12+ are viruses.
tRNA has __.
What are the four arms?
acceptor arms, TΨC arm, D arm and loop, Anticodon arm and loop
If DS RNA is a red flag, why isn't tRNA a problem?
the runs of DS-RNA are not enough to alert the body that it's a virus
In bacteria, what do the D and T arms of tRNA act as?
The acceptor stems always end in what __.
They are purely spacers.
Accepot stems always end in 3'-ACC
What's the same?
Why are redundancies more important in bacteria?
same genetic code, redundancies, and limitations
Because of their mutation frequency
Bacterial ribosomes are __. How many sites are there?
nine bases wide
two: P and A site
When an anticodon of tRNA comes in to bind with the complementary mRNA codon, the middle base first base pairs with the codon. After, the tRNA will wobble one way and then another way to make sure the base pairs are proper. If it's wrong, the tRNA is completely thrown out.
Explain what happens to the amino acids during translation
amino acid in the site gets transferred to the tRNA in the A site.
In some bacteria, what is the deal with the tRNA?
some tRNA don't have stop codons. They are truncated. Others are just missing.
about 21 bases long, the rbosomes bnd to the RNA and start translating
genes that are transcribed at constant rates (they must be on from the first second of life to the last second of life)
Repressible genes versus inducible genes?
repressible: commonly turned on, but turned off when not needed
inducible: commonly off, but turned on when needed
Explain the promoter.
Promoter: tells RNA polymerase where to bind. In some genes, the operator comes after and acts as an off-and-on switch.
Binds a class of proteins called repressors. When bound, the operator is off. When unbound, the operator is on.
The promoter and operator is always on a gene before the gene that they express