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What is vitamin A involved in?
vitamin A) what can deficiency result in?
-malformations of fetal lungs, urinary tract, and heart
vitamin A) excessive intakes
- Can also cause fetal malformations
- *this is not a problem if person is consuming beta-carotene
function of vitamin D during pregnancy (3)
-supports fetal growth
-addition of calcium to bone and tooth
What can deficiency of vitamin D do?
-compromise fetal growth and bone development
*infants born to women with inadequate vit d status tend to be small, poor calcified bones, abnormal enamel, low blood levels of calcium
What's RDA for A?
What is RDA for D?
5 mg/day or 200 IU
What is RDA for b12?
What is RDA of b6?
What is RDA for thiamine?
What is RDA for niacin?
What is RDA for riboflavin?
What is RDA for pantothenic acid?
What is RDA for calcium?
4 things related to deficiency in calcium?
-increase blood pressure during pregnancy
-decreased subsequent bone re-mineralization
-increased blood pressure in infant
-decreased concentration of calcium in breast milk
Does calcium absorption increase of decrease while pregnant?
During pregnancy does bone mineral turnover take place at a higher rate or lower?
Does fluoride pass through placenta?
No it does not
Does intake of fluoride reduce risk of dental caries ?
What's RDA for zinc?
What is zinc required for during pregnancy ?
DNA and RNA syntehsis
What is deficiency of zinc related to? (6)
Zinc intake and iron supplements?
If woman is taking iron supplements than they need to increase intake of zinc
What's RDA for iron?
Why is iron needed during pregnancy? (3)
-accommodate increase of blood volume
-provide for fetal and maternal needs
-replace blood loss during delivery
does body conserve iron during pregnancy"?>
Iron deficiency anemia is associated with?
What does iron-deficiency anemia increase risk of?
Preterm delivery and LBW infants
How is iron deficiency anemia characterized by? (2)
-Low- hemoglobin level
-serum ferretin cut points
How is iron deficiency characterized by?
Depleted iron stores
Which is more common iron deficiency or iron deficiency anemia?
When does iron deficiency tend to occur?
Toward the end of pregnancy
What are iron deficiency symptoms? (6)
-short attention span
-increased susceptibility of infection
-irritability in mom
When is iron absorption at its greatest?
After the 30th week
Iron supplementation summary (3)
-absorb more iron from a pure iron pill than multivitamin
-women complain about GI distress
-high doses may cause inflammation and mitochondrial damage
Side effects of iron supple and dosage
The less of iron dosage they took per day the less side effects they experienced
What is RDA for iodine?
What can deficiency from iodine do?
*characterized by growth impairment, mental retardation, deafness
What do antioxidants help prevent?
DNA damage and reduce maternal tissue damage
Asthma and vitamin E
When women consumed enough vitamin E it reduces their risk for asthma
Which is the only supplement that is routinely recommended?
Under which circumstances are multivitamins recommended? (7)
-assessment has indicated a deficiency
-pregnancy with multiple babies
-iron deficiency anemia
Which 2 herbs have been shown to help with nausea?
food preferences and aversions) what is there an increased preference for>? (5)
What is pica?
craving of non food items such as ice, chalk, ashes, clay etc
*classified as eating disorder
Women who experienced pica tend to be...
Iron deficient or have iron deficiency anemia
Which sweeteners are acceptable?
Any that are in GRAS (generally recognized as safe)
What have some studies found about nitrate, nitrites, nitrosamines?
Associated with beta cell destruction and increase in type 1 DM for the fetus
How many mg is it safe to consume caffeine?
Up to 300 mg/day
Does caffeine cross the placenta?
Has caffeine been linked to malformation or complications with pregnancy?
7 features of fetal alcohol syndrome
-deformed facial structures
-abnormal joints and limbs
-problems with learning
-mental heath problems
Long term risks of smoking while pregnant? (2)
-mental retardation of child
-nicotine addiction in fetus
Smoking during pregnancy (2)
-it reduces placental flow to fetus thus limiting oxygen delivery
-reduces baby weight
Avoidance of food borne illness) what can listeriosis cause? (3)
-infection in newborn
How to treat morning sickness? (5)
-small frequent meals
-separate food and liquid
-avoid offensive odors
-get fresh air
- -consume high tolerated foods
- *crackers, hard eggs, chips, popcorn, yogurt
Which 3 dietary supplements can treat morning sickness
4 common complaints during pregnancy
Hyperemesis gravidarum what is it?
-severe nausea and vomiting throughout pregnancy
What may Hyperemesis gravidarum require>? (5)
-correction of electrolyte imbalances