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2014-09-27 18:49:19
Life nutrition

Nutrition and pregnancy IV
Show Answers:

  1. What is vitamin A involved in?
    Cell differentiation
  2. vitamin A) what can deficiency result in?
    -malformations of fetal lungs, urinary tract, and heart
  3. vitamin A) excessive intakes
    • Can also cause fetal malformations
    • *this is not a problem if person is consuming beta-carotene
  4. function of vitamin D during pregnancy (3)
    -supports fetal growth

    -addition of calcium to bone and tooth

    -enamel formation
  5. What can deficiency of vitamin D do?
    -compromise fetal growth and bone development

    *infants born to women with inadequate vit d status tend to be small, poor calcified bones, abnormal enamel, low blood levels of calcium
  6. What's RDA for A?
  7. What is RDA for D?
    5 mg/day or 200 IU
  8. What is RDA for b12?
    2.6 mg/day
  9. What is RDA of b6?
    1.9 mg/day
  10. What is RDA for thiamine?
    1.4 mg/day
  11. What is RDA for niacin?
    18 mg/day
  12. What is RDA for riboflavin?
    1.4 mg/day
  13. What is RDA for pantothenic acid?
    6 mg/day
  14. What is RDA for calcium?
    1000 mg/day
  15. 4 things related to deficiency in calcium?
    -increase blood pressure during pregnancy

    -decreased subsequent bone re-mineralization

    -increased blood pressure in infant

    -decreased concentration of calcium in breast milk
  16. Does calcium absorption increase of decrease while pregnant?
  17. During pregnancy does bone mineral turnover take place at a higher rate or lower?
    Higher rate
  18. Does fluoride pass through placenta?
    No it does not
  19. Does intake of fluoride reduce risk of dental caries ?
  20. What's RDA for zinc?
    11 mg/day
  21. What is zinc required for during pregnancy ?
    DNA and RNA syntehsis
  22. What is deficiency of zinc related to? (6)
    -growth retardation


    -preterm delivery


    -intrapartum hemorrhage

    -prolonged labor
  23. Zinc intake and iron supplements?
    If woman is taking iron supplements than they need to increase intake of zinc
  24. What's RDA for iron?
    27 mg/day
  25. Why is iron needed during pregnancy? (3)
    -accommodate increase of blood volume

    -provide for fetal and maternal needs

    -replace blood loss during delivery
  26. does body conserve iron during pregnancy"?>
  27. Iron deficiency anemia is associated with?
    Postpartum depression
  28. What does iron-deficiency anemia increase risk of?
    Preterm delivery and LBW infants
  29. How is iron deficiency anemia characterized by? (2)
    -Low- hemoglobin level

    -serum ferretin cut points
  30. How is iron deficiency characterized by?
    Depleted iron stores
  31. Which is more common iron deficiency or iron deficiency anemia?
    iron deficiency
  32. When does iron deficiency tend to occur?
    Toward the end of pregnancy
  33. What are iron deficiency symptoms? (6)


    -short attention span

    -poor appetite

    -increased susceptibility of infection

    -irritability in mom
  34. When is iron absorption at its greatest?
    After the 30th week
  35. Iron supplementation summary (3)
    -absorb more iron from a pure iron pill than multivitamin

    -women complain about GI distress

    -high doses may cause inflammation and mitochondrial damage
  36. Side effects of iron supple and dosage
    The less of iron dosage they took per day the less side effects they experienced
  37. What is RDA for iodine?
    220 mg.day
  38. What can deficiency from iodine do?

    *characterized by growth impairment, mental retardation, deafness
  39. What do antioxidants help prevent?
    DNA damage and reduce maternal tissue damage
  40. Asthma and vitamin E
    When women consumed enough vitamin E it reduces their risk for asthma
  41. Which is the only supplement that is routinely recommended?
  42. Under which circumstances are multivitamins recommended? (7)
    -assessment has indicated a deficiency

    -poor diet

    -pregnancy with multiple babies

    -vegan deit


    -iron deficiency anemia

    -drug abuse
  43. Which 2 herbs have been shown to help with nausea?
    -peppermint tea

    -ginger root
  44. food preferences and aversions) what is there an increased preference for>? (5)

    -citrus fruits


    -ice cream

  45. What is pica?
    craving of non food items such as ice, chalk, ashes, clay etc

    *classified as eating disorder
  46. Women who experienced pica tend to be...
    Iron deficient or have iron deficiency anemia
  47. Which sweeteners are acceptable?
    Any that are in GRAS (generally recognized as safe)

    *acesulfame-k, aspartame
  48. What have some studies found about nitrate, nitrites, nitrosamines?
    Associated with beta cell destruction and increase in type 1 DM for the fetus
  49. How many mg is it safe to consume caffeine?
    Up to 300 mg/day
  50. Does caffeine cross the placenta?
  51. Has caffeine been linked to malformation or complications with pregnancy?
  52. 7 features of fetal alcohol syndrome
    -smaller heads

    -deformed facial structures

    -abnormal joints and limbs

    -poor coordination

    -problems with learning

    -short memories

    -mental heath problems
  53. Long term risks of smoking while pregnant? (2)
    -mental retardation of child

    -nicotine addiction in fetus
  54. Smoking during pregnancy (2)
    -it reduces placental flow to fetus thus limiting oxygen delivery

    -reduces baby weight
  55. Avoidance of food borne illness) what can listeriosis cause? (3)
    -premature delivery


    -infection in newborn
  56. How to treat morning sickness? (5)
    -small frequent meals

    -separate food and liquid

    -avoid offensive odors

    -get fresh air

    • -consume high tolerated foods
    • *crackers, hard eggs, chips, popcorn, yogurt
  57. Which 3 dietary supplements can treat morning sickness

    -multivitamin suppls

  58. 4 common complaints during pregnancy
    -morning sickness



    -Hyperemesis gravidarum
  59. Hyperemesis gravidarum what is it?
    -severe nausea and vomiting throughout pregnancy
  60. What may Hyperemesis gravidarum require>? (5)

    -nutrition support

    -anti-emetic medications


    -correction of electrolyte imbalances