Therapeutics - Infectious disease 10

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kyleannkelsey
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284233
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Therapeutics - Infectious disease 10
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2014-09-27 18:30:08
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Therapeutics Infectious disease
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Therapeutics - Infectious disease
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  1. What organisms usually cause Urine infections?
    E coli, E. coli, E. coli, Proteus
  2. What organisms usually cause Pneumonia infections?
    • S. pneumoniae, K. pneumoniae, S. aureus,
    • Atypical respiratory organisms
  3. What organisms usually cause Sinusitis, URTI, mouth infections?
    S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis, Group A streptococcus, mouth anaerobes
  4. What organisms usually cause Skin/Skin structure infections?
    • Staphylococcus, Streptococcus
    • If patient has DM = anaerobes or G – may be the culprit
  5. What organisms usually cause Intra-abdominal infections?
    Gram-negatives, Gram-positives, anaerobes
  6. What organisms usually cause CNS infections?
    S. pneumoniae, N. meningitidis, H. flu, Listeria
  7. What are the common Gram negatie Cocci or Cocci-bacilli?
    • H. flu
    • Neisseria
    • M. Catarrhalis
  8. What are the common Gram negative Bacilli?
    • E. coli
    • Klebsiella
    • Proteus
    • Enterobacter
    • Serratia
    • Citrobacter
    • (EKP, ESC)
  9. What are the common gram positive cocci?
    • Staph
    • Strep
    • Enterococci
  10. What is the common gram negative anaerobe?
    Bacteroides
  11. What antibiotics can treat MRSA?
    • Vancomycin – empiric drug when MRSA is suspected The primary choice
    • Linezolid, Tedizolid – Bacteriostatic, not bacteriocidal
    • Daptomycin
    • Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole
    • Quinapristin/dalfopristin
    • Telavancin
    • Dalbavancin
    • Oritavancin
    • Doxycycline, minocycline; tigecycline
    • Ceftaroline
  12. What antibiotics cause C. diff?
    All antibiotics
  13. What antibiotics can cause allergic reactions?
    All
  14. What are the SE for Beta-lactam drugs?
    Neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, seizures
  15. Peaks are dependent on _________________________.
    Volume of distribution
  16. Troughs are dependent on _______________.
    Clearance
  17. What are the Bactericidal Antibiotics?
    • Aminoglycosides
    • Fluoroquinolones
    • Beta-lactams: Carbapenems, Monobactam, Cephalosporins
    • Vancomycin
    • Daptomycin
    • Telavancin
  18. What are the Bacteriostatic antibiotics?
    • Linezolid
    • Clindamycin
    • Macrolides
    • Tetracyclines
    • Metronidazole
  19. What are the major SE of Nafcillin?
    Thrombophlebitis; neutropenia
  20. What are the major SE of Cefoxitin?
    Bleeding (MTT side chain)
  21. What are the major SE of ceftriaxone?
    Biliary sludge formation
  22. What are the major SE of Macrolides?
    GI upset, thrombophlebitis (IV); P450 inhibitor; bone marrow suppression
  23. What are the major SE of Aminoglycosides?
    Vancomycin-nephro, ototoxicity; neuromuscular blockade
  24. What are the Fluoroquinolones?
    Phototoxicity; CNS effects; Q-T prolongation, hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia
  25. What are the major SE of Tigecycline?
    N, diarrhea, vomiting (up to 40%-tige); phototoxicity; CNS effects
  26. What are the major SE of Daptomycin?
    Elevated CPK levels
  27. What are the major SE of Linezolid?
    Thrombocytopenia; optic neuritis; serotonin syndrome
  28. What are the major SE of Clindamycin?
    N, V, diarrhea
  29. What are the major SE of Metronidazole?
    Metallic taste; P450 inhibitor
  30. What antibiotics have activity against Staph?
    • Anti-staph PCNs, like: Nafcillin
    • Clindamycin
    • All cephalosporins except ceftazidime and cefixime
    • Vancomycin
    • SMX/TMP
    • MRSA alternatives:
    • Linezolid
    • tedizolid
    • daptomycin
    • telavancin
    • ceftaroline
    • dalbavancin
    • oritavancin
  31. What are the alternative MRSA antibitoics?
    • Linezolid
    • tedizolid
    • daptomycin
    • telavancin
    • ceftaroline
    • dalbavancin
    • oritavancin
  32. How is Staph usually treated?
    Vanco empirically for all staph, then once it is cultured and the susceptibility is determined = Choose a more specific drug if possible
  33. Are amacrolides a good choice for staph?
    • Not very good
    • Are Quinolones a good choice for Staph?
    • Fair, better drugs
  34. Are cephalosporins a good choice for staph?
    Yes, except cetazidime and cefixime
  35. Is Bactrim a good choice for Staph infections?
    Yes
  36. What antibiotics are active against pseudomonas?
    • Aminoglycosides – gent, tobra, amik
    • Quinolones – cipro, levo
    • Aztreonam
    • Cefepime
    • Piperacillin-tazobactam
    • Carbapenems – imipenem, meropenem, doripenem
  37. Does Ertepenem cover pseudomonas?
    No
  38. Does Imipenem cover pseudomonas?
    Yes
  39. What antibiotics should not be taken PO with trivalent cations?
    • Tetracyclines
    • Quinolones (-floxacin)
  40. What antibiotics are only available IV?
    • All Carbepenems
    • Aminoglycosides (except TOBI)
    • Cefepime
    • cefotaxime
    • Cefoxitin
    • Ceftaroline (Teflaro)
    • ceftazidime
    • Ceftriaxone
    • Cefuroxime
    • Cephazolin (Ancef)
    • Colistin
    • Dalbavancin
    • Dalbavancin (Dalvance)
    • Daptomycin
    • Daptomycin (Cubicin)
    • Nafcillin
    • Oritivancin (Orbactiv)
    • Ortivancin
    • Oxacillin
    • Pen G
    • Televancin
    • Unasyn
    • Zosyn
  41. What antibiotics have hepatic elimination?
    • Nafcillin
    • Tedizolid
    • Clindamycin
    • Tetracyclines
    • Cipro is 40% hepatic, but also has renal elimination
    • Ceftriaxone has 30% hepatic elimination
  42. What antibiotics do not need to be adjusted for renal insufficiency?
    • Nafcillin
    • Tedizolid
    • Clindamycin
    • Ceftriaxone
    • Macrolides
    • Tetracyclines
  43. What antibiotics should be adjusted for renal insufficiency?
    • PCNs (except Nafcillin)
    • Cephalosporin’s
    • Aminoglycosides
    • Quinolones
  44. What drugs are dependent on Peak/MIC?
    • Daptomycin
    • Aminoglycosides
  45. What antibiotics are only G-?
    What antibiotics are only G +?
  46. What drugs are dependent on time over MIC?
    • Beta-Lactams
    • Vancomycin may be becoming this with use
  47. Which drugs are dependent upon AUC/MIC?
    • Vancomycin
    • Dalbavancin
    • Ortivancin
    • Linezolid
    • Tedizolid
    • Clindamycin
    • Colistin
    • Flouroquinolones…?

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