urinary system

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Hbottorff
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284242
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urinary system
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2014-10-13 20:24:47
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urinary portion
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  1. what are the 4 general structure of the urinary system
    • kiney
    • ureters
    • urinary bladder
    • urethra
  2. list the 5 functions of the urinary system
    • adjusting blood volume and BP
    • regulating blood plasma concentrations of Na, Ka, and Cl and others
    • stablilize blood pH
    • conserving nutrients
    • removing drugs and toxins from blood
  3. where are the kidneys located
    • interior to the 11th and 12th ribs
    • behind the peritoneum
  4. what does the retroperitoneal mean
    behind the peritoneum
  5. what is the renal medulla
    inner region of the kidney
  6. what is the renal cortex
    superficial region of the kidney
  7. what is the nephron
    nephrons are the functional unit of the kidney
  8. these nephrons are located in the cortex
    responsible for most regulatory functions
    85 % all nephrons
    cortical nephrons
  9. essential to producing concentrated urine
    long nephron loop extending deep into the medulla
    15 % of nephrons
    which one?
    juxtamedullary nephrons
  10. what two main structures is the nephron divided into?
    • renal corpuscle
    • renal tubule
  11. which nephron allows BP to force water and solutes out of the glomerular capillaries in a process called filtration.
    Produces filtrate
    collected in the surrounding capsular space
    renal corpuscle
  12. which nephron has a tubular passagway up to 50 mm long and recieves filtrate and modifies it to create urine
    renal tubule
  13. what is comprised of the glomerular capsule and the glomerulus
    renal corpuscle
  14. this is also known as Bowmans capsule it collects the filtrate from the glomerulus
    glomerular capsule
  15. this is a specialized capillary bed which provides the blood to be filtered
    glomerulus
  16. this is a protien free solution similar to blood plasma which is derived from blood
    filtrate
  17. these cells play a role in secreting and reabsorbing hydrogen and bicarbonate ions
    intercalated cells
  18. these cells reabsorb water and secret K+
    principal cells
  19. what are the 6 steps of the renal function
    • renal corpuscle
    • proximal convoluted tubules
    • PCT and descending limb of nephron loop
    • ascending limb of nephron loop
    • DCT and collecting system make adjustments
    • Vasa Recta
  20. describe the pathway of blood through the kidney from the renal artery to the renal vein (arterial system)
    • Renal artery
    • segmental arteries
    • interlobar arteries
    • arcuate arteries
    • cortical radiate arteries
    • afferent arterioles
  21. this delivers blood to the kidney
    renal artery
  22. the renal artery branch into this which are located in the renal sinus
    segmental arteries
  23. the segmental arteries branch into these and they run throughout the renal columns
    interlobar arteries
  24. the interlobar arteries branch into these
    they arch along the boundary between the renal cortex and renal medulla
    arcuate arteries
  25. the arcuate arteries branch into these.
    cortical radiate arteries
  26. the corticate radiate arteries branch into these. they supply each nephrons, specifically the glomerulus.
    afferent arterioles
  27. what is the pathway of blood (filtrate) of the venous system. beginning from the afferent arterioles
    efferent artioles
  28. these arterioles that collect each nephron, specifically the glomerulus
    efferent artioles
  29. these collect blood from the capillaries of the nephron
    cortical radiate veins
  30. the cortical radiate veins drain into this
    arcuate veins
  31. the arcuate veins drain into this
    interlobar veins
  32. this drains into the inferior vena cava
    renal vein
  33. these surround the entire renal tubule, collect water and solutes from nephron, deliver other solutes to nephron, drains into the cortical radiate veins
    peritubular capillaries
  34. what is the vasa recta
    blood flow around a juxtamedullary nephron, same blood flow until after the peritubular capillaries
  35. what is connected to the distal end of the peritubular capillaries,runs paralell to nephron loop, drains into cortical radiate
    vasa recta
  36. this is the extracellular fluid that surrounds the peritubular capillary bed. It is isotonic with the blood supply
    peritubular fluid
  37. 5 functions of the urinary system
    • adjust blood volume and pressure
    • regulate blood plasma concentrations of Na, K, Cl and other ions
    • stabilize blood pH
    • conserve nutrients
    • Remove drugs and toxins from the body
  38. where are the kidneys located
    • inferior to the floating ribs
    • behind the peritoneum
  39. what is another word for behind the peritoneum
    retroperitoneal
  40. what is the superficial region of the kidney
    renal cortex
  41. what is the inner region of the kidney
    renal medulla
  42. define nephron
    the functional unit of the kidney
  43. what are the three main things associated with cortical nephrons
    • 85 percent of all nephrons
    • located in cortex
    • responsible for regulatory functions
  44. what are the 3 main things associated with juxtamedullary nephrons
    • 15 percent of all nephrons
    • long nephron loop extends into medulla
    • produces concentrated urine
  45. what are the two portions of the nephron?
    renal corpuscle and renal tubule
  46. describe the three main functions of the corpuscle
    blood pressure forces water and solutes out of the glomerular capillaries and produces filtrate which is collected into the capsular space
  47. what does the renal tubule do?
    recieves filtrate and modifies it to create urine
  48. what is the renal corpuscle comprised of
    glomerular capsule which contains the glomerulus
  49. what collects the filtrate from the glomerulus?
    glomerular capsule (Bowmans)
  50. what part has specialized capillary beds that allow the blood to be filtered
    glomerulus
  51. describe filtrate and where it comes from
    similar to bloodplasma but protein free and it comes from the blood when filtered through the glomerulus
  52. list all the structures of the nephron though which filtrate travels from blood to bladder (12)
    Glomerular capsule>proximal convoluted tubule> loop of Henle> distal convoluted tubule> collecting duct>papillary duct>minor Calyx> Major Calyx> renal pelvis> Ureter > Bladder> urethra
  53. what do intercalated cells do
    play role in secreting and reabsorbing hydrogen and bicarbonate ions
  54. describe principle cells
    reabsorb water and secrete potassium
  55. What is the main purpose of the Vasa recta
    transports
  56. what is the main purpose of the peritubular capillaries
    they collect
  57. what are the three physiological functions of the kidney
    • filtration (renal corpuscle)
    • Reabsorption (proximal convoluted tubule)
    • Secretion (distal convoluted tubule)
  58. describe the filtration part of the renal corpuscle
    blood pressure forces water and solutes across the glomerular capillaries into the capular space
  59. describe the reabsorption in the proximal convoluted tubule
    transports water and solutes from the tubular fluid across the eptihelium membrane into the pertibular fliud and back into the blood supply
  60. describe secretion of the distal convulted tubule
    trasports solutes from the peritubular capillary bed into the peritubular fluid across the epithelium and into the tubular fluid
  61. what is the main purpose of the renal corpuscle
    filtration
  62. what is the main purpose of the PCT
    • reabsorption
    • reabsorbs 60-70% water recieved from corpuscle
    • 99-100% organic substrates
    • 60-70% Na and Cl
  63. what three things is the loop of Henle used for
    • 25% water reabsorbs back into peritubular capillaries
    • reabsorbs 20 to 25% of Na and Cl
    • CREATES HIGH CONCENTRATION OF NaCl IN MEDULLA
  64. what two things does the DCT absorb
    • water under the control of ADH
    • and Na under the control of aldosterone
  65. what builds aqua porins
    ADH
  66. what hormone is involved in sodium recovery
    Aldosterone
  67. what does the collecting duct do with control of what
    reabsorbs water under control of ADH
  68. what are mesangial cells
    supporting cells that are located adjacent to glomerular capillaries and control capillary diameter and rate of blood flow
  69. what is the function of the juxtaglomerular complex
    secretes renin when BP falls in the Glomerulus
  70. describe the correlation Vasodilation and afferent arteriole on GHP and GFR
    • vasodilation would INCREASE GHP and GFR
    • vasoconstriction would DECREASE GHP and GFR
  71. what 5 factors conrtoll glomerular filtration
    • glomerular hydrostatic pressure GHP
    • capsule colliod osmotic pressure
    • Blood colliod osmotic pressure BCOP
    • capsular hydrostatic pressure CsHP
    • net filtration pressure NFP
  72. describe glomerular hydrostatic pressure GHP
    • BP in glomerular caplillaries
    • tends to push water and solutes into filtrate
    • higher pressure than other capillaries due to diameter of Afferent and efferent arterioles
  73. desribe Net filtration pressure (NFP)
    • pressure acting acroose glomerular capillaries
    • sum of HP and COP
    • this is the average pressure that forces out the filtrate
  74. describe Capsular hydrostatic pressure CsHP
    • opposes GHP
    • pushes water and solutes into the plasma
    • results from filtrate already in nephron
  75. describe Capsular Colloid osmotic pressure
    few if any plasma protiens enter the capsule
  76. blood colliod osmotic pressure BCOP describe it
    • pressure is due to material in the solution
    • tends to oppose filtration and draws water out of filtrate and into the plasma
  77. where does reabsorption primarily occur
    proximal convoluted tubule PCT
  78. where does secretion primarily occur
    distal convoluted tubule DCT
  79. what is the renal plasma threshold
    when there is too much glucose to be reabsorbed into the PCT that it remains in the urine
  80. what are the three types of trasnports of the DCT
    • Na/ K exchange
    • Na /H echange
    • secretion of toxins and drugs
  81. what would increased amounts of aldosterone do
    it would increase reabsorbtion of Na and decrease levels of K and H in the plasma
  82. what is countercurrent
    fluids moving in opposite direction
  83. what is multiplication
    effect increases with fluid movement
  84. what are two major effects of the nephron loop
    • creates concentraion gradient in medulla
    • enables production of highly concentrated urine
  85. describe the ascending limb of the loop of Henle
    • activley transports Na and Cl out of fluid
    • impermeable to water
    • tubular fluid concentraion decreases
    • peritubular fluid solute concentraion increases
  86. describe the thin descending limb of the loop of Henle
    • permeable to water
    • impermeable to solutes
    • water moves into peritubular fluid by osmosis
    • tubular fluid solute concentration increase
  87. what isthe number one rule of the kidney
    where salt goes water follows
  88. describe obligatory water reabsorption
    • recovers 85% filtrate
    • rate cannot be adjusted
    • occurs in PCT and descending limb of nephron loop
  89. describe faculative water reabsorption
    • occurs in DCT and collecting tubule
    • allows precise control of absorption
    • adjusts urine volume
  90. desribe how anti diuretic hormone conrtols water reabsorption
    causes aqua porins to be formed in the DCT and collecting tubule cells (this can be affected by concentrsation gradient caused by the loop of Henle) water enters the medulla
  91. describe the 6 steps of renal function
    • Renal corpuscle
    • PCT
    • PCT and descending limb
    • Ascending limb
    • DCT and collecting system making adjustments
    • Vasa recta
  92. how is the concentraion gradient of the renal medulla maintained
    loop of henle
  93. list the components of the urinary tract
    ureters, urethra and urinary bladder
  94. describe ureters
    paired muscular tubes connects kidneys to bladder
  95. describe bladder
    hollow organ holds up to a liter of urine
  96. describe urethra
    extends from neck of urinary bladder to exterior of body
  97. describe the detrusor muscle
    the muscles of the bladder that help excrete urine
  98. what three base layer does the bladder have?
    mucosa, submucosa, and muscularis
  99. what are the layers within the bladder of the muscularis
    • innner longitudinal layer
    • circular layer
    • outger longitudinal layer
  100. describe the micturation reflex
    coordinates the process of urination
  101. what pathway does the micturation reflex involve
    local reflex and central pathway to the cerebral cortex
  102. describe the local pathway of the bladder
    • stretch receptors distory as it fills
    • afferent impulses carried to sacral spinal cord
    • parasympathetic motor response stimulates detrusor muscle to compress which increase hydrostatic pressure
  103. describe the central pathway of the bladder
    • inetneuron relays sensation of bladder fullness to thalamus
    • projectionfibers relay to cerebral cortexl
    • voluntary relaxation of external urethral sphincter then causes internal urentral sphincter to relax leads to urination due to increase pressure already
  104. what do JG cells secret when low BP
    renin
  105. how does renin effect angiotensiongen
    converts it from liver into angiotensin I
  106. how is Angiotensin I converted and where
    in the lungs ACE converts it into angiotensin II
  107. what are the 5 effects of Angiotensin II
    • increase salt apetite
    • increase Na, H2O reabsorption in DCT/ CD
    • increases Aldosterone secretion
    • increases ADH secretion
    • increases Total PR
    • INCREASE BP
  108. what are the effects of renin-angiotension system
    • increase water retention
    • increase Blood Volume
    • increase BP
    • correct electrolyte embalance
  109. what is Glomerular filtration rate
    this controls urine output due to the RAS

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