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Florence Nightingale , 18-19th century.
- defined nursing as science and art
- differentiated nursing from medicine
- free-standing educations w. textbooks.
- Volunteered to care for wounds and feed Union soldiers during Civil war.
- supervisor for nurses for Army of the James
- Established the ARC in 1882
superintendent of Female Nurses of Army during civil war. pioneering crusader for reform of treatment of mentally ill
Mary Ann Bickerdyke
diet kitchens, laundry, and ambulance service and supervised staff during civil war
- nurse during civil war
- New York Charities Aid Association -->improve care of sick
- Bellevue Hospital; recommended standards for nursing edu.
- 1873 graduate from New England Hospital for Women and Children in Boston.
- first trained nurse in USAnight superintendent for Bellevue Hospital (1874)
- began practice of keeping records and writing orders
- Provided social services w/in neighborhoods
- leader for women's rights
- 1931 Nobel peace prize
- neighborhood nursing service for Lower East Side in NYC
- founder of public health nursing
Mary Elizabeth Mahoney
- New England Hospital for Women and Children graduate in 1987
- America's first african american nurse
- nurse and abolitionist
- active in underground railroad before joining Union Army during civil war
Nora Gertrude Livingston
- Established training program for nurses at Montreal General Hospital
- first 3 year program in N. America
Mary Agnes Snively
- Director of nursing school in Toronto General Hospital
- founder of Canadian Nurses Association
- nursing care to soldiers during Civil War
- worked for women's movement
Isabel Hampton Robb
- leader in nursing and edu.
- organized nursing school; John Hopkins Hospital
- policies including limited hours and days
- wrote textbook
- first president of Nurses Associated Alumnae of US and Canada (American Nurses Association)
Mary Adelaide Nutting
- first professor of nursing in world as faculty member of Teacher's college; Columbia University
- Lavinia Dock; published four-volume history of nursing
- member of original victorian order of nurses for canada
- organized the canadian Women's army corps during WWII
- leader and activist
- constitutional amendment giving women right to vote
- establsihed Frontier Nursing Service
- Midwifery schools in US
Founder of Planned Parenthood
- combines art and science in meeting physical, emotional, intellectual, sociocultural, and spiritual needs.
- communicator, teacher, counseor, leader, researcher, advocate and collaborator --> promote wellness; prevent illness, restore health, facilitate coping w. disability or death
- primary role of nurse
effective interpersonal and therapeutic communication skills to establish and maintain helping relationships with patients of all ages in wide variety of healthcare settings.
communication skills to assess, implement, and evaluate individualized teaching plans to meet learning needs of pt. and family.
terapeutic interpersonal communication skills to provide info, make referrals, and facilitate pt. problem-solving and decision-making skills
assertive, self0confident pracice of nursign when providing care, effecting change, and functioning with groups
participation in or conduct of research to increase knowlege in nursing and improve pt. care
protection of human or legal rights and the securing of care for all pt. based on the belief that patients have the right to make informed decisions about their own health and lives
effective use of skills in org. communicatin, advoay to facilitate functions of all members of healthcare team as they provide pt. care.
- advanced degree, expert in specialized ara of nursing
- direct pt. care
- teaching of pt families, and staff
- advanced degree, special area/age,
- variety of health care settings
- deliver primary care.`
- anesthesia school
- preoperative visitis and assessments
- monitors anesthesia
- postoperative status of pt
- prenatal and postnatal care
- delivers babies w/ uncomplicated pregnancies
- teaches edu//clinical setting
- theoretical knowledge and clinical skills
- conducts research
responsible for for management and administration of resources and personnel involved in pt. care
advanced degree who conducts research relevant to definitions and improvements of nursing practice and edu.
manage clinic//health-related business, conduct research, provide edu. // serve as an adviser or consultant to institutions, political agencies, or businesses.
International Nursing Org
- first international org of professional women
National Nursing Organizations
ANA, NLN, AACN, NSNA
Anerican Nurses Association
- membership is comprised of state nurses' to which individuals belong.
- Mission: involved in public edu, clinical nursing standards, lobbying state and federal lawmakers to advance profession.
- Addresses: ethics, public policy, and economic and general welfare of nurses.
National League for Nursing
- nurses, nonnurses, and agencies
- objectives: foster development and improvement of all nursing servies and nursing edu
- primary source of research data about nursig edu, conducting anual surveys of schools and new RNs.
- voluntary accreditation for edu. programs in nursing
American Association of Colleges in Nursing
- voice for BSN and higher degree edu programs
- goals: establishing quality edu standards, influencing nursing profession -> improve healthcare, promoting public support of BSN and graduate edu, research, and practice.
- National accrediation for collegiate nursing programs.
National Student Nurse's Association
- for students enrolled
- voluntary participation, self-governance, advocate for student and pt. rights, collective, responsible actions of social and political issues.
Life style risk Factors
- Lack of knowledge about sexual/ martial roles
- alterations in nutrition
- Chemical dependency
- inadequate dental care/hygiene
- unsafe home environment
Psycho social risk factors
- inadequate child care
- inadequate income
- conflict between family member
Environmental risk factors
- lack of knowledge or finances to provide safe and clean living conditions
- work or social pressures causing stress
- air, water, pollution.
Developmental risk factors
- new babies, with unavailable support system
- older people with fixed income
- unmaied adolescent mothers who lack personal, economic, and educational resources
Biologic Risk Factors
- Birth Defects
- Mental retardation
- Genetic predisposition to certain diseases--> cardiovascular diseases and cancer
Florence Nightingale (Theory)
- Meeting personal needs of pt. w.in environment
- cleanliness, ventilation temp, light, diet, noise
- therapeutic, interpersonal, goal orientated process
- directed toward developing pt. personality for productive personal and community living
- individual who requires help to reach independence
- practice is independent; autonomous functions are identifiable, self-help concepts
- problem solving art and science used to identify nursing problems of pt. as they move toward health and cope with illness-related health needs
- 21 nursing-care problems identified were based on research and can be used to determine pt. needs and formulate nursing focused care.
Ida Jean Orlando
- reacts to the pt. verbal and nonverbal expression of needs both to understand meaning of distress and know what is needed to alleviate it
- nursing process to provide solutions as well as prevent problems
- nursing=art, nurturing to all pt.
- philosophy, purose, practice, art. care is directed toward a specific purpose to meet the pt. perceived healthcare needs
Lydia E. Hall
- rehabilitation and feeling of self actualization by pt.
Myra E. Levine
- ill person in healthcare setting; detailed nursing skill and actions
- pt = center, four conservation principles to help pt. adapt to environment
- Emphasis on science and art of nursing w. unitary human being central to discipline of nursing
- repatterning human environment fields or assisting in mobilizing inner resources.
- self-care is human need, self-care deficits require nursing actions
- human service, nurse design intervention to provide or manage selfcare actions
- pt. is personal system w/in social system; nurse and pt. experience each other and situatation, act, react, and transact.
- nursing= process of human interactions as nurses and pt. communicate to mutually set goals, explore agree on the means to reach goals.
- constant relationship with stressors in environmentassessing effects of environmental stressors and in assisting client adjustments required for optimal wellness
Sr. Callista Roy
- biopsychosocial beings existing w.in environment
- nursing interventions required when individuals demonstrate ineffective adaptive responses
- caring is central theme of nursing care, knowledge and practice
- transcultural nursing care. improves human conditions and life processes.
- promoting and restoring health, preventing illness, and caring for sick
- holistic to promote humanism, health, and quality of living. universal and practiced through interpersonal relationships.
Margaret A. Newman
- purposeful, total-person approach to pt. care to help individuals, families, and groups attain and maintain wellness
- reducing stress factors, adverse conditions that increase risk for or actually affect optimal pt. functions
Dorothy E. Johnson
- disturbances in system or subsytem or level of behavioral functioning is below optimal level
- designed to support/maintain, educate, counsel, and modify behavior
- individual continually interacts with environment and participates in maintaining health
- continual, open process, with nursing care planned based on pt. perspecitive and health care
- goal: optimal health of individual, focus on how individuals make healthcare decision
- health-promoting behaviors; beliefs on importance of health, perceived benefits, perceived barriers
Benner and Wrubel
- context of caring and skill development. caring is common bond of persons situated in state of being that is essential to nursing
- systematic description and stages of nursing practice; novice, advanced beginner, competent, proficient, expert.
explore, describe events in real-life situations, describing concepts and identifying relationships between and among events. generate new knowledge about topics with little or no prior research
examine type and degree of relationship b.w 2 or more variables. strength of relationship varies.
examine cause and effect . examine effects of nursing interventions on pt. outcomes
examine cause and effect relationships under highly controlled conditions most often lab.
philosophy and research method, describe experienced as they are lived by subject. analysis of data provides info about meaning of experience w.in each persons reality
people describe their own reality and how their beliefs are related to actions in social scene. concepts and generate theory of experience supported by examples from data.
discipline of anthropology , examine issues of culture that are of interest.
- examines events to increase understanding of nursing today.
- study leaders, increasing interest in patterns of nursing practice.
review of lit/ statement of purpose
relevant studies conducted. specific goals or purpose of study
how study conducted, who and how many subjects,, what research use, what data collected and how. types of analysis done. enough to be repeated.
findings, words and charts. important to understand what they were and if meaningful
results mean in regard to study and lit. review. suggestions for further research and application to nursing edu/practice
at the end; list of articles and books used by researcher.