Chapters 1-5

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  1. Crimean War
    Florence Nightingale , 18-19th century.
  2. Florence Nightingale
    • defined nursing as science and art
    • differentiated nursing from medicine
    • free-standing educations w. textbooks.
  3. clara barton
    • Volunteered to care for wounds and feed Union soldiers during Civil war.
    • supervisor for nurses for Army of the James
    • Established the ARC in 1882
  4. Dorthea Dix
    superintendent of Female Nurses of Army during civil war. pioneering crusader for reform of treatment of mentally ill
  5. Mary Ann Bickerdyke
    diet kitchens, laundry, and ambulance service and supervised staff during civil war
  6. Louise Schuyler
    • nurse during civil war
    • New York Charities Aid Association -->improve care of sick
    • Bellevue Hospital; recommended standards for nursing edu.
  7. linda richards
    • 1873 graduate from New England Hospital for Women and Children in Boston. 
    • first trained nurse in USA
    • night superintendent for Bellevue Hospital (1874)
    • began practice of keeping records and writing orders
  8. Jane Addams
    • Provided social services w/in neighborhoods
    • leader for women's rights
    • 1931 Nobel peace prize
  9. Lillian Wald
    • neighborhood nursing service for Lower East Side in NYC
    • founder of public health nursing
  10. Mary Elizabeth Mahoney
    • New England Hospital for Women and Children graduate in 1987
    • America's first african american nurse
  11. Harriet Tubman
    • nurse and abolitionist
    • active in underground railroad before joining Union Army during civil war
  12. Nora Gertrude Livingston
    • Established training program for nurses at Montreal General Hospital
    • first 3 year program in N. America
  13. Mary Agnes Snively
    • Director of nursing school in Toronto General Hospital
    • founder of Canadian Nurses Association
  14. Sojourner Truth
    • nursing care to soldiers during Civil War
    • worked for women's movement
  15. Isabel Hampton Robb
    • leader in nursing and edu.
    • organized nursing school; John Hopkins Hospital
    • policies including limited hours and days
    • wrote textbook
    • first president of Nurses Associated Alumnae of US and Canada (American Nurses Association)
  16. Mary Adelaide Nutting
    • first professor of nursing in world as faculty member of Teacher's college; Columbia University
    • Lavinia Dock; published four-volume history of nursing
  17. Elizabeth Smellie
    • member of original victorian order of nurses for canada
    • organized the canadian Women's army corps during WWII
  18. Lavinia Dock
    • leader and activist
    • constitutional amendment giving women right to vote
  19. Mary Breckenridge
    • establsihed Frontier Nursing Service
    • Midwifery schools in US
  20. Margaret Sanger
    Founder of Planned Parenthood
  21. caregiver
    • combines art and science in meeting physical, emotional, intellectual, sociocultural, and spiritual needs. 
    • communicator, teacher, counseor, leader, researcher, advocate and collaborator --> promote wellness; prevent illness, restore health, facilitate coping w. disability or death
    • primary role of nurse
  22. Communicator
    effective interpersonal and therapeutic communication skills to establish and maintain helping relationships with patients of all ages in wide variety of healthcare settings.
  23. Teacher/Educator
    communication skills to assess, implement, and evaluate individualized teaching plans to meet learning needs of pt. and family.
  24. Counselor
    terapeutic interpersonal communication skills to provide info, make referrals, and facilitate pt. problem-solving and decision-making skills
  25. Leader
    assertive, self0confident pracice of nursign when providing care, effecting change, and functioning with groups
  26. Researcher
    participation in or conduct of research to increase knowlege in nursing and improve pt. care
  27. Advocate
    protection of human or legal rights and the securing of care for all pt. based on the belief that patients have the right to make informed decisions about their own health and lives
  28. Collaborator
    effective use of skills in org. communicatin, advoay to facilitate functions of all members of healthcare team as they provide pt. care.
  29. Clinical Specialist
    • advanced degree, expert in specialized ara of nursing
    • direct pt. care
    • consultations
    • teaching of pt families, and staff
    • research
  30. Nurse Practioner
    • advanced degree, special area/age, 
    • variety of health care settings 
    • deliver primary care.`
  31. Nurse Anesthetist
    • anesthesia school
    • preoperative visitis and assessments
    • monitors anesthesia
    • postoperative status of pt
  32. Nurse-Midwife
    • prenatal and postnatal care
    • delivers babies w/ uncomplicated pregnancies
  33. Nurse educator
    • teaches edu//clinical setting
    • theoretical knowledge and clinical skills
    • conducts research
  34. Nurse Administrator
    responsible for for management and administration of resources and personnel involved in pt. care
  35. Nurse Researcher
    advanced degree who conducts research relevant to definitions and improvements of nursing practice and edu.
  36. Nurse Entrepreneur
    manage clinic//health-related business, conduct research, provide edu. // serve as an adviser or consultant to institutions, political agencies, or businesses.
  37. International Nursing Org
    • ICN
    • 1899
    • first international org of professional women
  38. National Nursing Organizations
  39. Anerican Nurses Association
    • ANA
    • 1800's 
    • membership is comprised of state nurses' to which individuals belong. 
    • Mission: involved in public edu, clinical nursing standards, lobbying state and federal lawmakers to advance profession.
    • Addresses: ethics, public policy, and economic and general welfare of nurses.
  40. National League for Nursing
    • NLN
    • 1952
    • nurses, nonnurses, and agencies
    • objectives: foster development and improvement of all nursing servies and nursing edu
    • primary source of research data about nursig edu, conducting anual surveys of schools and new RNs.
    • voluntary accreditation for edu. programs in nursing
  41. American Association of Colleges in Nursing
    • AACN
    • voice for BSN and higher degree edu programs
    • goals: establishing quality edu standards, influencing nursing profession -> improve healthcare, promoting public support of BSN and graduate edu, research, and practice. 
    • National accrediation for collegiate nursing programs.
  42. National Student Nurse's Association
    • NSNA
    • 1952
    • for students enrolled
    • voluntary participation, self-governance, advocate for student and pt. rights, collective, responsible actions of social and political issues.
  43. Life style risk Factors
    • Lack of knowledge about sexual/ martial roles
    • alterations in nutrition 
    • Chemical dependency
    • inadequate dental care/hygiene 
    • unsafe home environment
  44. Psycho social risk factors
    • inadequate child care
    • inadequate income
    • conflict between family member
  45. Environmental risk factors
    • lack of knowledge or finances to provide safe and clean living conditions
    • work or social pressures causing stress
    • air, water, pollution.
  46. Developmental risk factors
    • new babies, with unavailable support system
    • older people with fixed income
    • unmaied adolescent mothers who lack personal, economic, and educational resources
  47. Biologic Risk Factors
    • Birth Defects
    • Mental retardation
    • Genetic predisposition to certain diseases--> cardiovascular diseases and cancer
  48. Florence Nightingale (Theory)
    • Meeting personal needs of pt. environment
    • cleanliness, ventilation temp, light, diet, noise
  49. Hildegard Peplau
    • 1952
    • therapeutic, interpersonal, goal orientated process
    • directed toward developing pt. personality for productive personal and community living
  50. Virginia Henderson
    • 1955
    • individual who requires help to reach independence
    • practice is independent; autonomous functions are identifiable, self-help concepts
  51. Faye Abdullah
    • 1960
    • problem solving art and science used to identify nursing problems of pt. as they move toward health and cope with illness-related health needs
    • 21 nursing-care problems identified were based on research and can be used to determine pt. needs and formulate nursing focused care.
  52. Ida Jean Orlando
    • 1961
    • reacts to the pt. verbal and nonverbal expression of needs both to understand meaning of distress and know what is needed to alleviate it
    • nursing process to provide solutions as well as prevent problems
  53. Ernestine Wiedenbach
    • 1964
    • nursing=art, nurturing to all pt.
    • philosophy, purose, practice, art. care is directed toward a specific purpose to meet the pt. perceived healthcare needs
  54. Lydia E. Hall
    • 1966
    • rehabilitation
    • rehabilitation and feeling of self actualization by pt.
  55. Myra E. Levine
    • 1967
    • ill person in healthcare setting; detailed nursing skill and actions
    • pt = center, four conservation principles to help pt. adapt to environment
  56. Martha Rogers
    • Emphasis on science and art of nursing w. unitary human being central to discipline of nursing
    • repatterning human environment fields or assisting in mobilizing inner resources.
  57. Dorothea Orem
    • 1971
    • self-care is human need, self-care deficits require nursing actions
    • human service, nurse design intervention to provide or manage selfcare actions
  58. Imogene King
    • 1971
    • pt. is personal system w/in social system; nurse and pt. experience each other and situatation, act, react, and transact. 
    • nursing= process of human interactions as nurses and pt. communicate to mutually set goals, explore agree on the means to reach goals.
  59. Betty Newman
    • 1972
    • constant relationship with stressors in environment
    • assessing effects of environmental stressors and in assisting client adjustments required for optimal wellness
  60. Sr. Callista Roy
    • 1974
    • biopsychosocial beings existing environment
    • nursing interventions required when individuals demonstrate ineffective adaptive responses
  61. Madeline Leininger
    • 1978
    • caring is central theme of nursing care, knowledge and practice
    • transcultural nursing care. improves human conditions and life processes.
  62. Jean Watson
    • 1979
    • promoting and restoring health, preventing illness, and caring for sick
    • holistic to promote humanism, health, and quality of living. universal and practiced through interpersonal relationships.
  63. Margaret A. Newman
    • 1979
    • purposeful, total-person approach to pt. care to help individuals, families, and groups attain and maintain wellness
    • reducing stress factors, adverse conditions that increase risk for or actually affect optimal pt. functions
  64. Dorothy E. Johnson
    • 1980
    • disturbances in system or subsytem or level of behavioral functioning is below optimal level
    • designed to support/maintain, educate, counsel, and modify behavior
  65. Rosemarie Parse
    • 1981
    • individual continually interacts with environment and participates in maintaining health
    • continual, open process, with nursing care planned based on pt. perspecitive and health care
  66. Nola Pender
    • 1982
    • goal: optimal health of individual, focus on how individuals make healthcare decision
    • health-promoting behaviors; beliefs on importance of health, perceived benefits, perceived barriers
  67. Benner and Wrubel
    • 1989 
    • context of caring and skill development. caring is common bond of persons situated in state of being that is essential to nursing
    • systematic description and stages of nursing practice; novice, advanced beginner, competent, proficient, expert.
  68. Qn
    explore, describe events in real-life situations, describing concepts and identifying relationships between and among events. generate new knowledge about topics with little or no prior research
  69. qn
    examine type and degree of relationship b.w 2 or more variables. strength of relationship varies.
  70. qn
    examine cause and effect . examine effects of nursing interventions on pt. outcomes
  71. qn. 
    examine cause and effect relationships under highly controlled conditions most often lab.
  72. ql
    philosophy and research method, describe experienced as they are lived by subject. analysis of data provides info about meaning of experience each persons reality
  73. ql
    people describe their own reality and how their beliefs are related to actions in social scene. concepts and generate theory of experience supported by examples from data.
  74. ql. 
    discipline of anthropology , examine issues of culture that are of interest.
  75. ql
    • examines events to increase understanding of nursing today.
    • study leaders, increasing interest in patterns of nursing practice.
  76. Abstract
    summarizes article
  77. Introduction
    review of lit/ statement of purpose
    relevant studies conducted. specific goals or purpose of study
  78. Method
    subject/design/data collection/analysis
    how study conducted, who and how many subjects,, what research use, what data collected and how. types of analysis done. enough to be repeated.
  79. results
    findings, words and charts. important to understand what they were and if meaningful
  80. Discussion (conclusion)
    results mean in regard to study and lit. review. suggestions for further research and application to nursing edu/practice
  81. References
    at the end; list of articles and books used by researcher.
Card Set
Chapters 1-5
fundamentals of nursing study guide 1, people, places, and definitions.
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