Block One Lecture 12

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Author:
DesLee26
ID:
284277
Filename:
Block One Lecture 12
Updated:
2014-09-28 12:43:54
Tags:
Garcia
Folders:
Micro
Description:
Test One
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  1. What does _(insert structure below here)_ refer to?

    - primary structure 

    - secondary

    - tertiary

    - quaternary
    • primary: actual sequence of amino acids
    • secondary: refers to the first signs of 3D structure-- alpha helix and beta pleated sheets
    • tertiary: refers to the interaction between sheets and helices
    • quaternary: interaction of peptide subunits
  2. Explain in depth tertiary structure
    • increases the complexity of 3D structure
    • hydrogen, ionic, and disulfide bonds
    • hydrophobic interactions
  3. Explain quaternary structure in detail.
    interaction of peptide subunits: same bond types in tertiary structure/ not all proteins have quaternary structure
  4. What is mutation?

    It may be __(3)__.

    Mutagen?

    Spontaneous mutations.
    change in genetic materia

    neutral, beneficial, or harmful

    agent that causes mutations

    occur in the absence of a mutagen
  5. Base substitution

    missense mutation

    nonsense mutation

    frameshift mutation
    base: change in one base (aka: point mutation)

    missense: result in change of amino acid

    nonsense: result in a nonsense codon

    frameshift: insertion or deletion of one or more nucleotide pairs
  6. What can ionizing radiation do? What can repair this?
    causes the formation of ions that can react with nucleotides and the deoxyribose-phosphate backbone

    nucleotide excision repair
  7. What does UV radiation do? What helps this?
    • causes thymine dimers
    • light-repair
  8. Explain in detail UV radiation.
    1) exposure causes adjacent thymies to become cross linkd, forming a thymine dimer and disrupting their normal base pairing

    2) an enzyme cuts out and removes the damaged DNA

    3) DNA pol fills the gap by synthesizing new DNA, using the intact strand as a template

    4) DNA ligase seals the remaining gap by joining hte old and new DNA
  9. Frequency of mutation
    1) spontaneous mutation rate: 1 in 10^9 replicated base pairs or 1 in 10^6 replicated genes

    mutagens increase to 10^-5 or 10^-3 per replicated gene
  10. Positive (direct) selection versus negative (indirect) selection
    Positive: detects mutant cells because they grow or appear different

    Negative: detects mutant cells because they do not grow
  11. Explain replica plating.
    1) A sterile velvet is pressed on the grown colonies on the master plate which has the medium containing (a particular nutrient such as histidine)

    2) cells from each colony are transferred from the velvet to new plates (one that has the nutrient and one that does not)

    3) the plates are incubated

    4) growth on the plates is compared. A colony that grows on teh medium with the nutrient (such as histidine) but could not grow on the medium without histidine is an auxotrophic (histidine-requiring mutant)
  12. What is the Ames Test?
    uses bacteria as carcinogen indicators

    1. Based on observation that exposure of mutant bacteria to mutagenic substances may cause new mutations that reverse the effect of the original mutation: reversions
  13. Explain the procedure of the Ames Test.
    an experimental sample with the suspected mutagen is placed on a medium lacking the histidine. Then, after incubation, the experimental plate is compared to the control plate
  14. vertical gene transfer

    horizontal gene transfer
    occurs during reproduction between generations of cells

    transfer of genes between cells of the same generation
  15. Explain the Griffith experiment.
    He took four rats: 

    1) First rat: injected living encapsulated bacteria into to--> mouse died--> isolated the bacteria and cultured it only to find colonies of encapsulated bacteria

    2) second rat: injected living nonencapsulated bacteria into it--> mouse remained healthy--> isolated it and cultured finding a few colonies of nonencapsulated bacteria; phagocytosis destroyed nonencapsulated bactera

    3) third rat: heat-killed encapsulated bactera were injected into it--> mouse remained healthy--> isolation resulted in a culture with no colonies

    4) fourth rat: injected living nonencapsulated and heat killed encapsulated bacteria into the mouse--> mouse died--> colonies of encapsulated bacteria were isolated from the dead mouse--> transformation had occurred
  16. Recombination
    Genetic material is taken from the environment

    It has to be a critical mass. 

    Signle stranded exogenous DNA is taken up. RecA and associated proteins will help with homologous recombination and repair of DNA
  17. How do gram positive and engative recombine?
    Gram p: transformasome

    Gram n: pilus/ sex pilus
  18. Explain transduction.
    a phage infects the donor bacterial cell

    phage DNA and proteins are made and hte bacterial chromosome is broken down into pieces

    occassionally dring phage assembly, pieces of bacterial DNA are packaged in a phage capsid. Then, the donor cell lyses and releases phage particles containing bacterial DNA

    a phage carrying bacterial DNA infects a new host cell, the recipient cell

    recombination can occur, producing a recombinant cell with a genotype different from both the donor and recipient cell

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