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1. The Renaissance in Italy
A. the Italian states thrived because of ____ trade; wealth allowed for patronage which lead to cultural Renaissance.
B. Renaissance-transition from Medieval to ____ times.
1. Middle Ages - fragmented ____ society with agricultural economy; ____ dominated thought and culture.
2. Renaissance was charachterized by a growing ____ consciousness, an urban economy based on organized ____ and capitalism and there was a movement towards secular thought and culture.
3. Two events sparked the Renaissance
a. death of Petrarch - the father of ____ and the death of Boccaccio; thereafter civic humanism spread throughout Italy and into ____ Europe.
C. The Italian city-state
1. geography - natural ____ between east and west.
a. ____ rich cities became powerful city-states that dominated political and economic life.
2. growth of city-states
a. propapal and proimperial forces fought and weakened each other allowing for ____ to dominate the state.
b. 5 major states - Dutch of Milan, Republic of Florence, Venice, the Papal states, and Kingdom of Naples.
3. Social Class and conflict
a. "grandi"-old rich; ____ and nobles
b. "popolo grosso"-____ rich; capitalists and bankers
c. middle-burgher; guild masters, shop owners and pros
d. "popolo minuto" - ____
1. Ciompi Revolt - uprising of the poor fueled by the feuding between old rich and new rich, the ____, and the collapse of the great banking houses- Bandi and Peruzzi
4. despotism and diplomacy - to ____ internal social conflict and foriegn intrigue from paralyzing the cities, dominat groups hired ____ or despots known as podesta to maintain law and order and allow buisness to flourish
a. operated through ____ armies known as condottieri
b. led to the ____ of diplomacy - vreated embassies and had ambassadors.
- lower class
- black death
D. Humanism-the study of the Latin and ____ classics and of the ancient Church fathers for its own sake and to ____ norms and values
1. advocated studia humanitatis - liberal arts program of study
a. the byzantine scholar Manuel Chrysolaras opened up the world of Greek scholarship to Italien humanists by teaching in Florence. ____ coined the term humanitas
b. this revival in culture was more ____ , had broader interests, had more reference material, and the people involved had far superior technical skills than earlier rebirths.
c. these intellectuals connected classical and modern thought to end the ____.
2. Great Humanists
a. Petrarch - father of humanism; lived around Avignon; wrote Letters to the Ancient Dead, Africa, and lives of Illustrious Men.
b. ____ - wrote Vita Nuovo and Divine Comedy; along with Petrarch formed the cornerstone of vernacular literature.
c. Giovanni Boccaccio - wrote Decameron and assembled Greek and Roman ____
- Leonardo Bruni
- Dark Ages
- Dante Alighieri