chapter 19 ap2

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chapter 19 ap2
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  1. Largest artery of the body
    Aorta
  2. Supplies the kidney
    Renal artery
  3. Supplies the duodenum and stomach
    Common hepatic artery
  4. Supplies the distal areas of the large intestine.
    Inferior mesenteric artery
  5. Supplies pelvic structures.
    Internal iliac artery
  6. Artery that does not anastomose.
    Renal artery
  7. Gives rise to the right common carotid and right subclavian artery
    Brachiocephalic trunk
  8. Supplies the lower limbs
    External iliac artery
  9. Common site to take the pulse
    Radial artery
  10. Major supply to the cerebral hemispheres
    Internal carotid artery
  11. Large unpaired branch of the abdominal aorta that supplies the liver, stomach, and spleen.
    Celiac trunk
  12. Receives blood from all areas superior to the diaphragm, except the heart wall.
    Superior vena cava
  13. Carries oxygen‐poor blood to the lungs
    Pulmonary trunk
  14. Drains the scalp
    External jugular vein
  15. Runs through the armpit area, giving off branches to the axillae, chest wall, and shoulder girdle
    Axillary artery
  16. Drains the upper extremities, deep vein
    Subclavian vein
  17. Artery usually palpated to take the blood pressure
    Brachial artery
  18. Major artery of the thigh
    Femoral artery
  19. Supplies the small intestine.
    Superior mesenteric artery
  20. Carries oxygen‐rich blood from the lungs
    Pulmonary vein
  21. Vessel commonly used as a coronly bypass vessel.
    Great saphenous vein
  22. Site where resistance to blood flow is greatest
    Arterioles
  23. Site where exchanges of food and gases are made
    Capillaries
  24. Site where blood pressure is lowest
    Large veins
  25. Site where the velocity of blood flow is fastest
    D)  Large arteries
  26. Site where the velocity of blood flow is slowest.
    Capillaries
  27. Site where the blood volume is greatest
    Large veins
  28. Site where the blood pressure is greatest.
    Large arteries
  29. Site that is the major determinant of peripheral resistance
    Arterioles
  30. The adjustment of blood flow to each tissue in proportion to its requirements at any point in time is termed autoregulation.
    TRUE
  31. Arterial pressure in the pulmonary circulation is much higher than in the systemic circulation because of its proximity to the heart.
    FALSE
  32. Osmotic pressure is created by the presence in a fluid of small diffusible molecules that easily move through the capillary membrane
    FALSE
  33. The cerebral arterial circle (circle of Willis) is an arterial anastomosis
    TRUE
  34. The outermost layer of a blood vessel is the tunica intima
    FALSE
  35. The thick‐walled arteries close to the heart are called muscular arteries
    FALSE
  36. Hypotension is generally considered systolic blood pressure that is below 100 mm Hg.
    TRUE
  37. A precapillary sphincter is a cuff of smooth muscle that regulates the flow of blood into the capillaries.
    TRUE
  38. The carotid sinus reflex protects the blood supply to the brain, whereas the aortic reflex is more concerned with maintaining adequate blood pressure in the systemic circuit as a whole.
    TRUE
  39. Vasodilation is a widening of the lumen due to smooth muscle contraction
    FALSE
  40. The pulmonary circulation does not directly serve the metabolic needs of body tissues
    TRUE
  41. In infants and young people, congenital vascular problems are less common than congenital heart disease.
    TRUE
  42. The most common form of shock is hypovolemic shock
    TRUE
  43. Every minute, about 1.5 ml of fluid leaks out of the capillaries.
    TRUE
  44. The pancreas is an example of an organ with arteries that do not anastomose
    false
  45. An obstruction in the superior vena cava would decrease the flow of blood from the head and neck to the heart.
    TRUE
  46. Arteries supplying the same territory are often merged with one another, forming arterial anastomoses
    TRUE
  47. An increase in blood viscosity will cause an increase in peripheral resistance
    TRUE
  48. The first major branch of the femoral artery is the dorsalis pedis artery
    FALSE
  49. The azygos vein originates in the abdomen
    TRUE
  50. Whereas diffusion is more important for solute exchange between plasma and interstitial fluid, bulk flow is more important for regulation of the relative volumes of blood and interstitial fluid
    TRUE
  51. Which of the following is not one of the three main factors influencing blood pressure?
    A)  emotional state 
    B)  blood volume 
    C)  peripheral resistance
    D)  cardiac output
    A)  emotional state
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  52. Which of the following chemicals does not help regulate blood pressure? 
    A)  angiotensin II 
    B)  atrial natriuretic peptide
    C)  ADH 
    D)  nitric acid
    D)  nitric acid
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  53. Which statement best describes arteries? 
    A)  All carry oxygenated blood to the heart. B)  All contain valves to prevent the backflow of blood.
    C)  All carry blood away from the heart.
    D)  Only large arteries are lined with endothelium.
    C)  All carry blood away from the heart.
  54. Which tunic of an artery contains endothelium?  A)  tunica media 
    B)  tunica externa
    C)  basement membrane 
    D)  tunica intima
    D)  tunica intima
  55. Permitting the exchange of nutrients and gases between the blood and tissue cells is the primary function of
    A)  vein
    B)  arterioles 
    C)  arteries 
    D)  capillaries
    D)  capillaries
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  56. The circulatory route that runs from the digestive tract to the liver is called
    A)  hepatic portal circulation 
    B)  pulmonary circulation
    C)  cerebral circulation 
    D)  coronary circulation
    A)  hepatic portal circulation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  57. The arteries that are also called distributing arteries are the
    A)  arterioles 
    B)  elastic arteries 
    C)  capillaries
    D)  muscular arteries
    D)  muscular arteries
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  58. Aldosterone will ________. 
    A)  result in a larger output of urine
    B)  promote an increase in blood pressure
    C)  promote a decrease in blood volume
    D)  decrease sodium reabsorption
    B)  promote an increase in blood pressure
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  59. The pulse pressure is
    A)  systolic pressure plus diastolic pressure B)  systolic pressure divided by diastolic pressure
    C)  diastolic pressure plus 1/3 (systolic pressure plus diastolic pressure)
    D)  systolic pressure minus diastolic press
    D)  systolic pressure minus diastolic press
  60. Which of the following signs of hypovolemic shock is a relatively late sign?
    A)  cold, clammy skin
    B)  rapidly falling blood pressure
    C)  rapid, thready pulse
    D)  increased heart rate
    B)  rapidly falling blood pressure
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  61. Which of the following is likely during vigorous exercise? 
    A)  Blood flow to the kidneys increases
    B)  Blood will be diverted to the digestive organs.
    C)  Capillaries of the active muscles will be engorged with blood.
    D)  The skin will be cold and clammy.
    C)  Capillaries of the active muscles will be engorged with blood.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  62. Which of the choices below explains why the arterioles are known as resistance vessels?
    A)  They distribute blood to various parts of the body.
    B)  Their prime function is the exchange of nutrients and wastes between the blood and tissue cells.
    C)  The contraction and relaxation of the smooth muscle in their walls can change their diameter.
    D)  They contain a large quantity of elastic tissue. 
    C)  The contraction and relaxation of the smooth muscle in their walls can change their diameter.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  63. Which of the following is true about veins? 
    A)  Up to 35% of total body blood is in venous circulation at any given time.
    B)  Venous valves are formed from the tunica media.
    C)  Veins are called capacitance vessels or blood reservoirs.
    D)  Veins have a small lumen in relation to the thickness of the vessel wall.
    C)  Veins are called capacitance vessels or blood reservoirs.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  64. Which of the following processes provides a long‐term response to changes in blood pressure?
    A)  renal regulation
    B)  neural controls
    C)  baroreceptor‐initiated reflexes
    D)  chemoreceptor‐initiated reflexes
    A)  renal regulation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  65. Peripheral resistance
    A)  increases as blood vessel diameter increases
    B)  decreases with increasing length of the blood vessel
    C)  is not a major factor in blood pressure in healthy individuals
    D)  increases as blood viscosity increases
    D)  increases as blood viscosity increases
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  66. Brain blood flow autoregulation
    A)  is controlled by cardiac centers in the pons
    B)  is less sensitive to pH than to a decreased oxygen level
    C)  causes constriction of cerebral blood vessels in response to a drop in systemic blood pressure
    D)  is abolished when abnormally high CO2 levels persis
    D)  is abolished when abnormally high CO2 levels persis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  67. Blood flow to the skin
    A)  increases when environmental temperature rises
    B)  increases when body temperature drops so that the skin does not freeze
    C)  is not an important source of nutrients and oxygen for skin cells
    D)  is controlled mainly by decreasing pH
    A)  increases when environmental temperature rises
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  68. Which of the choices below reflects the balance (or imbalance) between the direction and amount of fluid that flows across the capillary walls?
    A)  hydrostatic pressure only
    B)  plasma and formed element concentration 
    C)  blood volume and viscosity
    D)  hydrostatic and osmotic pressure
    D)  hydrostatic and osmotic pressure
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  69. Which of the following is a type of circulatory shock?
    A)  circulatory, where blood volume is normal and constant
    B)  vascular, due to extreme vasodilation as a result of loss of vasomotor tone
    C)  cardiogenic, which results from any defect in blood vessels
    D)  hypovolemic, caused by increased blood volume
    B)  vascular, due to extreme vasodilation as a result of loss of vasomotor tone
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  70. Which tunic of an artery is most responsible for maintaining blood pressure and continuous blood circulation?
    A)  tunica intima 
    B)  tunica externa
    C)  basement membrane 
    D)  tunica media
    D)  tunica media
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  71. The influence of blood vessel diameter on peripheral resistance is
    A)  the only factor that influences resistance
    B)  significant because resistance is inversely proportional to the fourth power of the vessel radius
    C)  insignificant because vessel diameter does not vary
    D)  significant because resistance is directly proportional to the blood vessel diameter
    B)  significant because resistance is inversely proportional to the fourth power of the vessel radius
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  72. The form of circulatory shock known as hypovolemic shock is
    A)  any condition in which blood vessels are inadequately filled and blood cannot circulate normally
    B)  the form of shock caused by anaphylaxis
    C)  shock that results from large‐scale loss of blood volume, or after severe vomiting or diarrhea
    D)  always fatal
    C)  shock that results from large‐scale loss of blood volume, or after severe vomiting or diarrhea
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  73. In the dynamics of blood flow through capillaries, hydrostatic pressure
    A)  is completely canceled out by osmotic pressure
    B)  and osmotic pressure are the same
    C)  is the same as capillary blood pressure
    D)  generally forces fluid from the interstitial space into the capillaries
    C)  is the same as capillary blood pressure
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  74. The hepatic portal vein
    A)  carries oxygen‐rich blood from the liver to the viscera
    B)  carries blood from the liver to the inferior vena cava
    C)  carries nutrient‐rich blood to the liver
    D)  is actually an artery
    C)  carries nutrient‐rich blood to the liver
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  75. The term ductus venosus refers to
    A)  a fetal shunt that bypasses the lungs
    B)  damage to the valves in the veins, leading to varicose veins
    C)  a special fetal vessel that allows umbilical blood to bypass the liver
    D)  a condition of the aged in which the arteries lose elasticity
    C)  a special fetal vessel that allows umbilical blood to bypass the liver
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  76. Which of the choices below does not explain why low capillary pressures are desirable? 

    A)  Capillaries are fragile and high pressures would rupture them.
    B)  Most capillaries are extremely permeable and thus even low pressures force solute‐containing fluid out of the bloodstream.
    C)  Low blood pressure is more desirable than high blood pressure.
    C)  Low blood pressure is more desirable than high blood pressure.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  77. 87)  Which of the choices below does not involve tissue perfusion?
    A)  blood clotting
    B)  gas exchange in the lungs 
    C)  delivery of oxygen and nutrients to, and removal of wastes from, tissue cells
    D)  absorption of nutrients from the digestive tract
    A)  blood clotting
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  78. Which of the following do not influence arterial pulse rate?
    A)  emotions 
    B)  activity
    C)  the vessel selected to palpate 
    D)  postural changes
    C)  the vessel selected to palpate
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  79. Which of the following are involved directly in pulmonary circulation?
    A)  right atrium, aorta, and left ventricle
    B)  superior vena cava, right atrium, and left ventricle
    C)  right ventricle, pulmonary artery, and left atrium
    D)  left ventricle, aorta, and inferior vena cava
    C)  right ventricle, pulmonary artery, and left atrium
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  80. Histologically, the ________ is squamous epithelium supported by a sparse connective tissue layer.
    A)  tunica intima
    B)  tunica externa
    C)  tunica adventitia 
    D)  tunica media 
    A)  tunica intima
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  81. The arteries that directly feed into the capillary beds are called
    A)  elastic arteries 
    B)  arterioles
    C)  muscular arteries 
    D)  venules
    B)  arterioles
  82. Fenestrated capillaries ________.
    A)  are not found in the brain
    B)  are not more permeable than continuous capillaries
    C)  are not common in endocrine organs and in areas where capillary absorption is an important function
    D)  do not occur in the glomerular capillaries of the kidneys
    A)  are not found in the brain
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  83. Modified capillaries that are lined with phagocytes are called ________. 
    A)  anastomoses 
    B)  sinuses
    C)  sinusoids
    D)  thoroughfare channels 
    C)  sinusoids
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  84. Factors that aid venous return include all except
    A)  urinary output
    B)  pressure changes in the thorax
    C)  activity of skeletal muscles
    D)  venous valves
    A)  urinary output
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  85. Which of the following blood pressure readings would be indicative of hypertension? 
    A)  110/60 in a 20‐year‐old woman
    B)  140/90 in a 70‐year‐old woman
    C)  170/96 in a 50‐year‐old man
    D)  120/80 in a 30‐year‐old man
    C)  170/96 in a 50‐year‐old man
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  86. Select the correct statement about factors that influence blood pressure. 
    A)  An increase in cardiac output corresponds to a decrease in blood pressure, due to the increased delivery.
    B)  Excess protein production would decrease blood pressure.
    C)  Excess red cell production would cause a blood pressure increase.
    D)  Systemic vasodilation would increase blood pressure, due to diversion of blood to essential areas.
    C)  Excess red cell production would cause a blood pressure increase.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  87. Mechanisms that do not help regulate blood pressure include
    A)  chemical controls such as atrial natriuretic peptide
    B)  nervous control that operates via reflex arcs involving baroreceptors, chemoreceptors, and higher brain centers
    C)  renal regulation via the renin‐angiotensin system of vasoconstriction
    D)  the dural sinus reflex
    D)  the dural sinus reflex
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  88. The velocity of blood flow is ________. 
    A)  slowest in the capillaries because the total cross‐sectional area is the greatest
    B)  slower in the veins than in the capillaries because veins have a large diameter
    C)  in direct proportion to the total cross‐sectional area of the blood vessels
    D)  slower in the arteries than in capillaries because arteries possess a relatively large diameter
    A)  slowest in the capillaries because the total cross‐sectional area is the greatest
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  89. Select the correct statement about blood flow.
    A)  It is greatest where resistance is highest.
    B)  It is relatively constant through all body organs.
    C)  Blood flow through the entire vascular system is equivalent to cardiac output.
    D)  It is measured in mm Hg.
    C)  Blood flow through the entire vascular system is equivalent to cardiac output.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  90. A thrombus (blood clot) in the first branch of the arch of the aorta would affect the flow of blood to the
    A)  myocardium of the heart
    B)  right side of the head and neck and right upper arm
    C)  left side of the head and neck
    D)  left upper arm
    B)  right side of the head and neck and right upper arm
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  91. Cerebral blood flow is regulated by
    A)  skin temperature
    B)  intrinsic autoregulatory mechanisms
    C)  ADH
    D)  the hypothalamic "thermostat"
    B)  intrinsic autoregulatory mechanisms
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  92. A patient with essential hypertension might have pressures of 200/120 mm Hg. This hypertensive state could result in all of the following changes except ________. 
    A)  increased work of the left ventricle
    B)  decreased size of the heart muscle
    C)  increased incidence of coronary artery disease
    D)  increased damage to blood vessel endothelium
    B)  decreased size of the heart muscle
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  93. The short‐term controls of blood pressure, mediated by the nervous system and bloodborne chemicals, primarily operate via all but which of the following? 
    A)  reflex arcs associated with vasomotor fibers
    B)  reflex arcs involving baroreceptors
    C)  altering blood volume
    D)  chemoreceptors
    C)  altering blood volume
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  94. Secondary hypertension can be caused by
    A)  smoking 
    B)  stress 
    C)  obesity
    D)  arteriosclerosis
    D)  arteriosclerosis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  95. Where in the body would you find low oxygen levels causing vasoconstriction and high levels causing vasodilation?
    A)  lungs 
    B)  liver 
    C)  heart
    D)  kidney 
    A)  lungs
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  96. 106)  Normal average blood pressure for a newborn baby is ________.
    A)  90/55 
    B)  150/90 
    C)  130/80 
    D)  120/80
    A)  90/55
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  97. If blood pressure is almost normal in a person who has lost blood, does that mean the tissues are receiving adequate blood flow?
    A)  not necessarily 
    B)  no
    C)  yes 
    A)  not necessarily
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  98. What do the ductus arteriosus and the foramen ovale become at birth?
    A)  ligamentum arteriosum; ligamentum teres
    B)  fossa ovalis; ligamentum arteriosum
    C)  ligamentum teres; fossa ovalis
    D)  ligamentum arteriosum; fossa ovalis 
    D)  ligamentum arteriosum; fossa ovalis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  99. Which of the following would not result in the dilation of the feeder arterioles and opening of the precapillary sphincters in systemic capillary beds?
    A)  a decrease in local tissue oxygen content
    B)  an increase in local tissue carbon dioxide
    C)  a local increase in histamine
    D)  a local increase in pH 
    C)  a local increase in histamine
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  100. Arteriole blood pressure increases in response to all but which of the following? 
    A)  falling blood volume
    B)  increasing heart rate
    C)  rising blood volume
    D)  increasing stroke volume
    E)  all of these
    A)  falling blood volume
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  101. The baroreceptors in the carotid sinus and aortic arch are sensitive to which of the following?  
    A)  a decrease in carbon dioxide
    B)  a decrease in oxygen levels 
    C)  changes in arterial pressure
    D)  an increase in oxygen levels 
    C)  changes in arterial pressure
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  102. The first major branch of the aortic arch is the ________ branch
    brachiocephalic trunk
  103. The embryonic mesodermal cells that will eventually form the endothelial lining of blood vessels are called ________.
    blood islands
  104. The most common form of shock is
    hypovolemic

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