Anthro Exam 1

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  1. Robert Redfield
    Tepotlzan, Mexico. Emic approach.
  2. Oscar Lewis
    Etic approach with Tepotlzan, Mexico
  3. Richard Lee
    participant observation, primary ethnography among Ju/’Hoansi
  4. Annette Weiner
    followed up Malinowski in trobraind islands, recognized the economic importance of Trobriand women , not changes in status of trobriand women
  5. Bronislaw Malinowski
    first anthropologist to trobriand islanders
  6. Carl Linnaeus
    classified things by similarities and differences in physical characteristics
  7. Gregor Mendel
    knew mechanism of heredity, etc
  8. John-Baptiste Lamarck
    inheritance of acquired characteristics. acquired traits are passed on to offspring.
  9. Charles Darwin
    proposed natural selection. humans and apes share common ancestor
  10. Napoleon Chagnon
    a bad anthropologist?
  11. William Dressler
    racism by majority causes hypertension in minorities
  12. Edward Hall
    associated with studying personal space and cultural differences in time perception
  13. Anthropology
    The study of the biological and cultural diversity of human kind, past and present, throughout time and space
  14. culture
    learned behaviors, beliefs, and attitudes characteristic of a particular society or population.
  15. holism
    interested in the whole of the human condition: past, present, and future; biology society, language, and culture integrated.
  16. participant observation
    during ethnography, get involved and participate. Eat their food, become immersed. Key figure is Richard Lee, primary ethnography among Ju/’Hoansi
  17. key cultural consultants
    Person who is an expert on a particular aspect of local life
  18. four fields of anthropology
    cultural, archeology, biological, linguistic
  19. applied anthropology
    The application of anthropological data, perspectives, theory, and methods to identify, assess, and solve contemporary social problems.
  20. emic
    The research strategy that focuses on local explanations and criteria of significance. Robert Redfield
  21. etic
    The research strategy that emphasizes the ethnographer’s rather than the locals’ explanations, categories, and criteria of significance. Oscar Lewis
  22. ethnology
    Cross-cultural comparison; the comparative study of ethnographic data, society, and culture
  23. ethnography
    fieldwork in a particular culture
  24. genealogical method
    Procedures by which ethnographers discover and record connections of kinship, descent, and marriage, using diagrams and symbols
  25. symbol
    Something, verbal or non-verbal, that arbitrarily and by convention stands for something else, which it has no necessary or natural connection.
  26. basic features/characteristics of culture
    All encompassing. culture is symbolic (words, days of the week), culture organizes nature (months, when to harvest), culture is shared, culture is integrated, can be adaptive and maladaptive, has levels (international culture (religion), national culture, subcultures)
  27. cultural relativism
    The position that the values and standards of cultures differ and deserve respect. Anthropology is characterized by methodological rather than moral relativism: In order to understand another culture fully, anthropologies try to understand its members’ beliefs and motivations. Methodological relativism does not preclude making moral judgments or taking action
  28. creationism
    belief in biblical creation story
  29. catastrophism
    catastrophic events wiped out some species of plants and animals, which led God to create new ones
  30. uniformitarianism
    belief that explanations for past events should be sought in ordinary forces that continue to work today. Lyell
  31. ethnocentrism
    The tendency to view one’s own culture as best and to judge the behavior and beliefs of culturally different people by one’s own standards.
  32. acculturation
    The exchange of cultural features that results when groups come into continuous firsthand contact; the cultural patterns of either or both groups may be changed, by the groups remain distinct.
  33. enculturation
    the social process by which culture is learned and transmitted across the generations
  34. diffusion
    Borrowing of cultural traits between societies, either directly or through intermediaries
  35. globalization
    The accelerating interdependence of nations in a world system linked economically and through mass media and modern transportation systems.
  36. cultural patterns of time, space, perception and cognition
    major areas of cultural difference. Edward Hall. Azande can tell time by brewing beer. Trobriand islander time is a puddle.
  37. relative and absolute frames of spatial reference
    left right front back, vs cardinal directions, example Pormpuraawans, Australia
  38. hypodescent
    Rule that automatically places children of a union or mating between members of different socioeconomic groups in the less privileged group
  39. Principle of Independent Assortment
    traits are inherited independently of each other
  40. Allen’s Rule
    rule stating that the relative size of protruding body parts (such as ears, tails, bills, fingers, toes, and limbs) tend to increase in warmer climates
  41. Bergmann’s Rule
    Rule stating that the smaller of two bodies similar in shape has more surface area per unit of weight and therefore can dissipate heat more efficiently; hence, large bodies tend to be found in colder areas and small bodies in warmer ones.
  42. Thomson’s Nose Rule
    Rule stating that the average nose tends to be longer in areas with lower mean annual temperatures; based on the geographic distribution of nose length among human populations
  43. genetic drift
    loss of trait through random chance
  44. founder effect
    the loss of genetic variation that occurs when a new population is established by a very small number of individuals from a larger population
  45. melanin
    substance manufactured in specialized cells in the lower layers of the epidermis (outer skin layer); melanin cells in dark skin produce more melanin than do those in light skin
  46. gene pool
    All the alleles, genes, chromosomes, and genotypes within a breeding population – the “pool” of genetic material available
  47. natural selection
    The process by which the forms most fit to survive and reproduce in a given environment do so in greater numbers than others in the same population; more than survival of the fittest, natural selection is differential reproductive success
  48. mutation
    Change in the DNA molecules of which genes and chromosomes are built
  49. gene flow
    Exchange of genetic material between populations of the same species through direct or indirect interbreeding
  50. phenotype
    An organism’s evident traits, its “manifest biology” – anatomy and physiology
  51. genotype
    An organism’s hereditary makeup
  52. heterozygous
    having dissimilar alleles of a given gene
  53. homozygous
    Possessing identical alleles of a partiuclar gene
  54. dominant
    Allele that masks the other allele in the heterozygote
  55. recessive
    Genetic trait masked by dominant trait
  56. allele
    A biochemical varient of a particular gene (Whaaaa)
  57. cline
    a gradual shift in gene frequencies between neighboring populations
  58. race
    An ethnic group assumed to have a biological basis
  59. Great Chain of Being
  60. sickle-cell anemia
    adaptation for malaria. Deadly in homozygous, good as a carrier
  61. epigenetics
    changes in the expression and function of genes without altering the DNA, may be heritable
  62. universality, generality, particularity
    levels of specificity??
  63. forensic anthropology
    the application of the science of anthropology in a legal setting
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Anthro Exam 1
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