Organic Chem Chap. 4 5 6
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Organic Chem Chap. 4 5 6
Organic Chem Chap
Organic Chem for Chapter 4, 5, 6
Octet Rule of Ions
All group 18 elements have 8 valence e- except He Has 2 val. e-
Same as Octet except for 2 e-
Same # of positive charges as negative charges
More protons overall + charge especially metals that lose e-
More electrons overall - Charge especially nonmetals that gain e-
Compound totally diff. than original atoms. Need cation and anion, right proportion to make a neutral compound.
Transition elements ionic charge
Have variables charges more than 1 possible ionic charge.
Use roman numerals.
Steps for transition characters
Cross rule in reverse
Cheek anion for correctness
If not correct, multiply "both" Cation + anion by Anion #
Cation (+) + Anion (-), Opposite attract
anions (-) - nonmetals. Made of 2 non-metals. Sharing of valence "e"
Three types of Covalent Bonds
Single Covalent Bonds Share 2e-
Double " " 4e-
Triple " " 6e-
Ability of an atom to attract val e-. Causes non symmetrical sharing of e- causes a "Polar bond" Increase E. N -> Increases E.N Up
(E.N) Ionic Bond
(E.N) Covalent nonpolar bond
0 - 0.4
(E.N) Covalent Polar Bone
(0.5 - 1.7)
Transitional Elements that act like Reperesentative
No Roman numerals
Representative that act like transitional
Sn (II) Sn (IV) -> Sn
Pb (II) Pb (III) Pb (IV) -> Pb
Ionic compound - metal + nonmetal
covalent - H plus F, O, N
Dipole - Dipole
Polar covalent, diff EN 0.5-1.7
nonpolar covalent -diff EN 0 - 0.4
6.02 X 10
# Atoms <-> # moles
# Ions <-> # moles
# Moleculres <-> # moles
# Formula units <->
1 Mole moleculre
use subscripts to get moles of atoms
Use 3 sig figs
Tell how many moles of compound are present
Type of atoms in reaction type of atoms in products
Mass of all reactants mass of all products
Oxidation (OIL RIG)
Oxidation is a loss e- or H. Gain O
Reduction Reactions (OIL RIG)
Reduction s a gain:e- or H. Loss O. Good for electrons & hydrogen
A single element. Atoms don't have a charge
Energy released. Gets hot. Energy is a product written on right side of the chemical equation. Reactants have more energy than.
Energy absorbed (required) by reactants gets cold energy is a reactant written on the left side of the chemical equation. Reactants have less energy than products.
They reduce activation energy. They are never used up - reused. never part of the product.
Homogeneous mixture = Solute + Solvent.
Occurs in lesser amount
Occurs in greater amount
All about ions. Compounds that will conduct electricity when dissolved. More ions in solution - more easily conducts
Ionic compounds. Solution contains many ions. Conducts readily bright light.
weak acids + water. solution contains some ions. somewhat conducts electrical light - dim light.
Covalent compound. Solution contains no ions. No conduction of elect - no light
Ionic Charge & Equivalents
Ionic charges = # of Eqquivalents
Types of solution
Cannot dissolve more solute "maxed out" reach solubility limit
Can dissolve more solute
(Temperature affects solubility) For solids
Think Tea Up T Up Solubility. Down T Down Solubility
(Temperature affects solubility) For gases
Think Fish Up T Down Solubility. Down T Up Solubility
Pressure affects solubility
Down P Down Solubility. Think about soda Up P Up solubility.
For gas (closed) affected by pressure not temp.
Small particles such as atoms, ions, or small molecules. Particles do not settle. Particles cannot be separated by filters or semipermeable membranes.
Larger molecules or groups of molecules or ions. Particles do not settle. Particles can be separated by semipermeable membrane, but nor by filters.
Very large particles that may be visible. Particles settle rapidly. Particles can be separated by filters.
Properties of solutions
Types of solution depend on size
Thru osmosis get high pressure system
Flow of Water thru a semipermeable membrane from a low concentration solution to high concentration solution. -Low to High- Up force, up pressure = up osmotic pressure.
Something to remember
0.9% NaCl (Cl1- -15 mEq)
5.0% Glucose (Na+ 15 mEq)
Dilution of Solutions
Stock Solution very concertated solution McVc =MdVd. C= concentrated, D=Diluted