Organic Chem Chap. 4 5 6

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Ankoku-Bara
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284317
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Organic Chem Chap. 4 5 6
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2014-10-13 01:16:47
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Organic Chem for Chapter 4, 5, 6
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  1. Octet Rule of Ions
    All group 18 elements have 8 valence e- except He Has 2 val. e-
  2. Duet Rule
    Same as Octet except for 2 e-
  3. Neutral Atoms
    Same # of positive charges as negative charges
  4. Cations
    More protons overall + charge especially metals that lose e-
  5. Anions
    More electrons overall - Charge especially nonmetals that gain e-
  6. Ionic compound
    Compound totally diff. than original atoms. Need cation and anion, right proportion to make a neutral compound.
  7. Cross rule
    Na21+  + S12-  
  8. Transition elements ionic charge
    • Have variables charges more than 1 possible ionic charge.
    • Use roman numerals.
  9. Steps for transition characters
    • Cross rule in reverse
    • Cheek anion for correctness
    • If not correct, multiply "both" Cation + anion by Anion #
  10. Hydroxide
    OH-
  11. Ammonium
    NH4+
  12. Nitrate
    NO3 -
  13. Nitrite
    NO2 -
  14. Perchlorate
    ClO-
  15. Chlorate
    ClO-
  16. Chlorite
    ClO2 -
  17. Hypochlorite
    ClO-
  18. Carbonate
    CO2-
  19. Hydrogen carbonate
    HCO3 -
  20. Cyanide
    CN-
  21. Acetate
    CH3 O2 -
  22. Sulfate
    SO2-
  23. Hydrogen sulfate
    HSO4 -
  24. Sulfite
    SO3 2-
  25. Hydrogen sulfite
    HSO3 -
  26. Phosphate
    PO3-
  27. Hydrogen phosphate
    HPO4 2-
  28. Dihydrogen phosphate
    HPO-
  29. Phosphite
    PO3-
  30. Ionic Bond
    Cation (+) + Anion (-), Opposite attract
  31. Covalent Bond
    2anions (-) - nonmetals. Made of 2 non-metals. Sharing of valence "e"
  32. Three types of Covalent Bonds
    • Single Covalent Bonds Share 2e-
    • Double " " 4e-
    • Triple " " 6e-
  33. Diatomic Molecules
    • H2 , N, O, F, Cl, Br, I
  34. Mono
    1
  35. Di
    2
  36. Tri
    3
  37. Tetra
    4
  38. Penta
    5
  39. Hexa
    6
  40. Hepta
    7
  41. Octa
    8
  42. Nana
    9
  43. Deca
    10
  44. Electronegativity (E.N)
    Ability of an atom to attract val e-. Causes non symmetrical sharing of e- causes a "Polar bond" Increase E. N -> Increases E.N Up
  45. (E.N) Ionic Bond
    1.8 +
  46. (E.N) Covalent nonpolar bond
    0 - 0.4
  47. (E.N) Covalent Polar Bone
    (0.5 - 1.7)
  48. Transitional Elements that act like Reperesentative
    Ag1+ , Zn2+ &  Cd2+ No Roman numerals
  49. Representative that act like transitional
    • Sn (II) Sn (IV) -> Sn2+ Sn4+ 
    • Pb (II) Pb (III) Pb (IV) -> Pb2+  Pb3+  Pb4+
  50. Ionic force
    Ionic compound - metal + nonmetal
  51. Hydrogen bonding
    covalent - H plus F, O, N
  52. Dipole - Dipole
    Polar covalent, diff EN 0.5-1.7
  53. Disperson
    nonpolar covalent -diff EN 0 - 0.4
  54. 1 mole
    6.02 X 1023
  55. Possible Calculations
    • # Atoms <-> # moles
    • # Ions <-> # moles
    • # Moleculres <-> # moles
    • # Formula units <->
  56. 1 Mole moleculre
    use subscripts to get moles of atoms
  57. Standardization
    Use 3 sig figs
  58. Coefficients
    Tell how many moles of compound are present
  59. Matter
    Type of atoms in reaction type of atoms in products
  60. Mass
    Mass of all reactants mass of all products
  61. Oxidation (OIL RIG)
    Oxidation is a loss e- or H. Gain O
  62. Reduction Reactions (OIL RIG)
    Reduction s a gain:e- or H. Loss O. Good for electrons & hydrogen
  63. Atmos
    A single element. Atoms don't have a charge
  64. Exothermic Reaction
    Energy released. Gets hot. Energy is a product written on right side of the chemical equation. Reactants have more energy than.
  65. Endothermic Reaction
    Energy absorbed (required) by reactants gets cold energy is a reactant written on the left side of the chemical equation. Reactants have less energy than products.
  66. Catalyst
    They reduce activation energy. They are never used up - reused. never part of the product.
  67. Solution
    Homogeneous mixture = Solute + Solvent.
  68. Solute
    Occurs in lesser amount
  69. Solvent
    Occurs in greater amount
  70. Electrolytes
    All about ions. Compounds that will conduct electricity when dissolved. More ions in solution - more easily conducts
  71. Strong electrolyte
    Ionic compounds. Solution contains many ions. Conducts readily bright light.
  72. Weak electrolyte
    weak acids + water. solution contains some ions. somewhat conducts electrical light - dim light.
  73. Non-Electrolyte
    Covalent compound. Solution contains no ions. No conduction of elect - no light
  74. Ionic Charge & Equivalents
    Ionic charges = # of Eqquivalents
  75. Types of solution
    • Saturated solution
    • Unsaturated solution
  76. Saturated solution
    Cannot dissolve more solute "maxed out" reach solubility limit
  77. Unsaturated Solution
    Can dissolve more solute
  78. (Temperature affects solubility) For solids
    Think Tea Up T Up Solubility. Down T Down Solubility
  79. (Temperature affects solubility) For gases
    Think Fish Up T Down Solubility. Down T Up Solubility
  80. Pressure affects solubility
    Down P Down Solubility. Think about soda Up P Up solubility.
  81. Henry's law
    For gas (closed) affected by pressure not temp.
  82. Solution
    Small particles such as atoms, ions, or small molecules. Particles do not settle. Particles cannot be separated by filters or semipermeable membranes.
  83. Colloid
    Larger molecules or groups of molecules or ions. Particles do not settle. Particles can be separated by semipermeable membrane, but nor by filters.
  84. Suspension
    Very large particles that may be visible. Particles settle rapidly. Particles can be separated by filters.
  85. Properties of solutions
    Types of solution depend on size
  86. Osmotic Pressure
    Thru osmosis get high pressure system
  87. Osmosis
    Flow of Water thru a semipermeable membrane from a low concentration solution to high concentration solution. -Low to High- Up force, up pressure = up osmotic pressure.
  88. Something to remember
    • 0.9% NaCl (Cl1- -15 mEq)
    • 5.0% Glucose (Na+ 15 mEq)
  89. Dilution of Solutions
    Stock Solution very concertated solution McVc =MdVd. C= concentrated, D=Diluted

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