A & P 4 5 6

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A & P 4 5 6
2014-10-08 02:00:09

A&P for chapter 4, 5, 6
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  1. Ephithelial Tissues and Glads
    Sheet of cells that cover all free body surfaces (inside and out), forming an interface or boundary between two environments. Protects, absorbs, filtration.
  2. Apical Surface
    (free surface) The top part
  3. Basal Surface
    (bound surface) Connects to other parts of the skin
  4. Microvilli
    Figerlike extension of epithelial cells lining some parts of the digestive tract or kidney. Increasing absorption ad secretion. Adhesion points for secreted mucus.
  5. Cilia
    Cell membrane as hairs that move uniformly in one direction (wave like).
  6. Desmosomes
    Link and anchor between cells that prevent cells from being pulled apart.
  7. Tight Junctions
    Plasma membranes put together to make a leak proof sheets
  8. Gap juctios
    Leak between cells
  9. Basal lamina
    Noncellular, adhesive sheet glycoproteins secreted by epithelial cells toward the neighboring connective tissue layer. Selective filter
  10. Basement Membrane
    Deep in the basal lamina. Reinforces epithelial sheet and defies epithelial boudary
  11. Simple
    One layer
  12. Stratified
    More than one layer
  13. Pseudostratified
    Looks like more than one layer but isn't.
  14. Squamous
    Flat plate or scale like
  15. Cuboidal
    Cube-shaped or box-like
  16. Columar
    Tall and column shaped
  17. Glands
    One or more epithelial cells organized to make ad secrete (export) a particular product (often an aqueous fluid that contains proteins)
  18. Secretary Pathway
    RER -> Golgi -> Vesicles -> Exocytosis
  19. Endocrine glads
    Ductless (secretion into blood stream). Secrets hormones.
  20. Exocrine Glands
    Secrete product onto a body surface or into body cavities
  21. Globlet Cell
    Secretes mucin
  22. Multicellular
    Secretory unit + duct
  23. Simple Squamous epithelium
    Allows passage of material by diffusion. Found in the kidneys, lungs, heart, blood vessels, lymphatic, and ventral body cavity
  24. Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
    Secretion and absorption. Found in the kidneys, small glands, ovary surface.
  25. Simple Columnar epithelium
    Absorption, secretion of mucus, enzymes. Found in the digestive tract, gallbladder, excretory ducts, uterine tubes, and uterus.
  26. Pseudostratified Columnar epithelium
    Secretion, particularly of mucus. Found in the male's sperm, trachea, most of the upper respiratory tract.
  27. Stratified Squamous Epithelium
    (Keratinized) Protects underlying tissues in areas subjected to abrasion. Found in the esophagus, mouth and vagina.
  28. Transitional epithelium
    Stretches readily and permits distension of urinary organ by contained urine. Found in the ureters, urinary bladder, and pat of the urethra.
  29. 3 types of fibers
    • Collagen - (tendons) extremely tough
    • Elastic - stretch and recoil
    • Reticular - Fine collagen
  30. Tendons
    Ties bones and muscles
  31. Ligament
    Lines bone to bone
  32. Regeneration
    Replacement of destroyed tissue with some kind of tissue. For simple infection
  33. Fibrosis
    Replacement of destroyed tissue with fibrous connective tissue
  34. Peritoneum
  35. Pleura
  36. Visceral
  37. Parietal
    Cavity lined
  38. Pericardium
  39. Synovial memebrans
    Movable joints. Produce synovial fluid
  40. Sebaceous glands
    Oil Glands
  41. The skin constitutes at least three types of barriers
    Chemical, physical, and biological
  42. Metabolic function
    Synthesizes vitamin D
  43. Layers of the epidermis
    • Stratum basale
    • Stratum spinosum
    • Stratum Lucidum
    • Stratum corneum
  44. Albinism
    Failure to produce tyrosinase is the most common form (gingers)
  45. Papillary layer
    Supports and nourishes overlying epidermis
  46. Reticular layer
    Dense irregular connective tissue with meshwork of collagen and elastic fibers
  47. Eccrine
    Helps dissipate excess heat through evaporative cooling.
  48. Apocrine
    Activated by stress, pain, and sexual excitement.
  49. Ceruminous glands
    Found in lining of external ear canal.
  50. Bulb
    Growth zone at inferior end of hair follicle
  51. Root
    part of the hair enclosed in hair follicle
  52. Shaft
    visible part of hair; projects from surface of skin
  53. Decubitus ulcers (bed sores)
    Blood supply restricted -> ischemia (O2 reduced) -> necrosis
  54. Sepsis
    widespread bacterial infection.
  55. Rules of Nine
    Way to approximate the extent of burns
  56. 1st degree burn
    Redness, pain, and swelling (inflammation)
  57. 2nd degree burn
    Redness, pain, swelling, and blistering
  58. 3rd degree burn
    Total tissue destruction (epidermis, dermis, and even hypodermis)
  59. ABCD(E) Rule for cancer
    • A (asymmetry)
    • B (irregular border)
    • C (color)
    • D (larger than 6 mm in diameter, the size of a pencil eraser)
    • E (elevation above the skin surface)
  60. Kyphosis
    An exaggerated thorcic curve. Hunchback.
  61. Lordosis
    An exaggerated lumbar. Swayback.
  62. Scoliosis
    A "S" shaped lateral curvature.
  63. Hyaline
    Provides firm support with some flexibility
  64. Elsastic cartilage
    Stretch flexibility
  65. Fibrocartilage
    Strength from collagen fibers but cushioning ability
  66. Long bones
    Elongated with shaft + two ends
  67. Short bones
    roughly cube shaped (ankle and wrist bones)
  68. Flat bones
    Sternum, scapulae, ribs, and most skull bones
  69. Irregular bones
    vertebrae, hip bones
  70. Compact
    Smooth and solid in apperance
  71. Spongy
  72. Diaphysis
    Shaft. Medullary cavity filled with yellow marrow.
  73. Epiphysis
    Red marrow (blood production)
  74. Osteoblasts
    Bone forming cells. Builds up matrix called ossification or osteogenesis.
  75. Osteocytes
    Mature bone cells. Maintain existing matrix
  76. Osteoclasts
    Bone detroying cells. Breakdown and reabsorption of bone matrix.
  77. Chemical composition of bone matrix
    Functional anatomy: flexibility (collagen) + strength (mineral salts.. calcium-phosphate crystals)
  78. Intramemebranous ossification
    Ossification centers develop withing a fibrous membrane. Remnants of intramembranous bone growth.
  79. Endochondral ossification
    Model for long bone growth and occurs in most bones inferior to skull.
  80. Rickets
    Childhood demineralization of bone; formative deformities.
  81. Osteomalacia
    Adult form with softening of bone.
  82. Repair
    Hematoma (clot the area) is formed. Break is splintered by fibrocartilage. Fibrocartilage callus is replaced by bony callus. Bony callus is remodeled.
  83. Osteoporosis
    Results from the rate of resorption being faster than the rate of new bone formation (bone deposit)