A & P 4 5 6
Card Set Information
A & P 4 5 6
A&P for chapter 4, 5, 6
Ephithelial Tissues and Glads
Sheet of cells that cover all free body surfaces (inside and out), forming an interface or boundary between two environments. Protects, absorbs, filtration.
(free surface) The top part
(bound surface) Connects to other parts of the skin
Figerlike extension of epithelial cells lining some parts of the digestive tract or kidney. Increasing absorption ad secretion. Adhesion points for secreted mucus.
Cell membrane as hairs that move uniformly in one direction (wave like).
Link and anchor between cells that prevent cells from being pulled apart.
Plasma membranes put together to make a leak proof sheets
Leak between cells
Noncellular, adhesive sheet glycoproteins secreted by epithelial cells toward the neighboring connective tissue layer. Selective filter
Deep in the basal lamina. Reinforces epithelial sheet and defies epithelial boudary
More than one layer
Looks like more than one layer but isn't.
Flat plate or scale like
Cube-shaped or box-like
Tall and column shaped
One or more epithelial cells organized to make ad secrete (export) a particular product (often an aqueous fluid that contains proteins)
RER -> Golgi -> Vesicles -> Exocytosis
Ductless (secretion into blood stream). Secrets hormones.
Secrete product onto a body surface or into body cavities
Secretory unit + duct
Simple Squamous epithelium
Allows passage of material by diffusion. Found in the kidneys, lungs, heart, blood vessels, lymphatic, and ventral body cavity
Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
Secretion and absorption. Found in the kidneys, small glands, ovary surface.
Simple Columnar epithelium
Absorption, secretion of mucus, enzymes. Found in the digestive tract, gallbladder, excretory ducts, uterine tubes, and uterus.
Pseudostratified Columnar epithelium
Secretion, particularly of mucus. Found in the male's sperm, trachea, most of the upper respiratory tract.
Stratified Squamous Epithelium
(Keratinized) Protects underlying tissues in areas subjected to abrasion. Found in the esophagus, mouth and vagina.
Stretches readily and permits distension of urinary organ by contained urine. Found in the ureters, urinary bladder, and pat of the urethra.
3 types of fibers
Collagen - (tendons) extremely tough
Elastic - stretch and recoil
Reticular - Fine collagen
Ties bones and muscles
Lines bone to bone
Replacement of destroyed tissue with some kind of tissue. For simple infection
Replacement of destroyed tissue with fibrous connective tissue
Movable joints. Produce synovial fluid
The skin constitutes at least three types of barriers
Chemical, physical, and biological
Synthesizes vitamin D
Layers of the epidermis
Failure to produce tyrosinase is the most common form (gingers)
Supports and nourishes overlying epidermis
Dense irregular connective tissue with meshwork of collagen and elastic fibers
Helps dissipate excess heat through evaporative cooling.
Activated by stress, pain, and sexual excitement.
Found in lining of external ear canal.
Growth zone at inferior end of hair follicle
part of the hair enclosed in hair follicle
visible part of hair; projects from surface of skin
Decubitus ulcers (bed sores)
Blood supply restricted -> ischemia (O2 reduced) -> necrosis
widespread bacterial infection.
Rules of Nine
Way to approximate the extent of burns
1st degree burn
Redness, pain, and swelling (inflammation)
2nd degree burn
Redness, pain, swelling, and blistering
3rd degree burn
Total tissue destruction (epidermis, dermis, and even hypodermis)
ABCD(E) Rule for cancer
B (irregular border)
D (larger than 6 mm in diameter, the size of a pencil eraser)
E (elevation above the skin surface)
An exaggerated thorcic curve. Hunchback.
An exaggerated lumbar. Swayback.
A "S" shaped lateral curvature.
Provides firm support with some flexibility
Strength from collagen fibers but cushioning ability
Elongated with shaft + two ends
roughly cube shaped (ankle and wrist bones)
Sternum, scapulae, ribs, and most skull bones
vertebrae, hip bones
Smooth and solid in apperance
Shaft. Medullary cavity filled with yellow marrow.
Red marrow (blood production)
Bone forming cells. Builds up matrix called ossification or osteogenesis.
Mature bone cells. Maintain existing matrix
Bone detroying cells. Breakdown and reabsorption of bone matrix.
Chemical composition of bone matrix
Functional anatomy: flexibility (collagen) + strength (mineral salts.. calcium-phosphate crystals)
Ossification centers develop withing a fibrous membrane. Remnants of intramembranous bone growth.
Model for long bone growth and occurs in most bones inferior to skull.
Childhood demineralization of bone; formative deformities.
Adult form with softening of bone.
Hematoma (clot the area) is formed. Break is splintered by fibrocartilage. Fibrocartilage callus is replaced by bony callus. Bony callus is remodeled.
Results from the rate of resorption being faster than the rate of new bone formation (bone deposit)